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discussed at length in Chapter 6.

Figure 13.3 shows a single pile subject to an imposed vertical action P. The total vertical compressive action Fc includes both the imposed action and the pile's self-weight W.

The characteristic value of Fc is given by:

Fk = (PGk + i ) + WGk i where PGk and PQki are, respectively, characteristic permanent and variable components of P; the symbol WGk represents the pile's characteristic self-weight (a permanent action); and ^ is the combination factor applicable to the ith variable action (see Chapter 2).

The design value of Fc is given by:

Fcd = Yg (PGk + WGk ) + X YQ^iPQk,i i where yg and yq are partial factors on unfavourable permanent and variable actions.

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