## Effects of actions

In structural engineering, effects of actions are a function of the actions applied to a structure and that structure's dimensions, but not of material strength, i.e.:

where the notation E{...} denotes that the design effect Ed depends solely on design actions Fdi and design dimensions adj. This holds true for linear elastic analysis of structures, but not for plastic analysis. An example may help to illustrate the ideas behind this equation.

Figure 2.13 shows a simply-supported concrete beam subject to an imposed load F at midspan. The presence of the load (an action) results in the beam deflecting and internal stresses occurring in its cross-section (effects of the action). The bending moment at the beam's midspan is given by the equation:

4 8 where L, b, and d are the length, breadth, and depth of the beam, respectively, and pc is the weight density of concrete. The second term in this equation represents the 2 /3 Actims md effeds /ff,. , bending moment caused by the simply-supported beam beam's self-weight.

In Eurocode terms: MEd = function {F, pc, b, d, L} = E{Fdi, adj}

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