Geotechnical design

'The Eurocodes adopt, for all civil and building engineering materials and structures, a common design philosophy based on the use of separate limit states and partial factors, rather than 'global' factors (of safety); this is a substantial departure from much traditional geotechnical design practice ... an advantage of BS EN 1997-1 is that its design methodology is largely identical with that for all of the structural Eurocodes, making the integration of geotechnical design with structural design more rational.'9

As noted earlier, limit states should be verified by calculation; prescriptive measures; experimental models and load tests; an observational method; or a combination of these approaches. These are discussed in the following subsections. [EN 1997-1 §2.1(4)]

3.6.1 Design by calculation

Design by calculation involves a number of elements, which are summarized in Figure 3.6. These include three basic variables: actions (e.g. the weight of soil and rock, earth and water pressures, traffic loads, etc.), material properties (e.g. the density and strength of soils, rocks, and other materials), and geometrical data (e.g. foundation dimensions, excavation depths, eccentricity of loading, etc.).

{Weight of soil and rock | Stresses in ground | {Earth pressures" {Free water pressures {Ground water pressures {Seepage forces [ Dead and imposed [cads {Surcharges j Mooring forces |-'

■[ Renrnwal oiioad or excavation of ground {Traffic loads

Indirect actions

Design by calculation

{Rocks j—(Ground properties | Other materials ]— ^

{Geometrical data

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