Index

Abutment 75

Acceptance test : see Anchorages

Accidental load 198

Action:

accidental 21, 37, 41, 51, 82 characteristic 42-3, 60, 179-180, 204

combination of 41-2, 53 design 36, 39, 40-1, 43, 52-3, 80,

175, 179, 204 effect of 32, 34-5, 590 favourable 50, 80-1, 210, 269-270, 276, 278, 317, 320-1, 358, 361-2, 367-8, 413-421 geotechnical 79, 176, 184, 191-4,

269, 318, 420, 462 ground movements 75, 78, 264,

361-2, 454 indirect 37, 450

representative 39, 43, 50-3, 92,

135, 179, 256, 309, 316, 322 structural 184-5, 191, 194, 329, 413

variable 39-41, 51, 179, 183, 187-8, 191, 193, 205, 210-1, 256, 273, 276, 309, 316-7, 321, 361, 363, 367, 420, 449, 451, 453-4, 457, 460 unfavourable 50, 80-1, 276, 278, 317, 361-2, 367-8, 413-7, 419-421

Active earth pressure: see Earth pressure

Allowable bearing pressure 133, 308

Allowable stress design (ASD) 197 Anchorage:

acceptance test 72, 509, 512,

516-520 resistance 205, 517, 521 deadman 509 grouted 509, 512, 521 investigation test 2, 512-4, 517, 526

prestressed 183, 509, 520 suitability test 72, 509, 512, 514,

516-520 screw 512, 517 Angle of wall friction 239, 358, 405,

412, 427, 431, 434 Application Rule 3-4, 29, 75, 81-2,

357, 509, 561-2, 576 Applicability of: sampling 106-7 groundwater tests 109-110 field tests 113, 114 laboratory tests 116 dynamic load tests 448 Association of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Specialists (AGS) 567, 570-1 Axially loaded pile 72, 443

Bearing failure 302, 306, 354-5, 452 Bearing resistance 87, 137, 140, 183, 191, 199, 258, 307-315, 323-4, 360-1, 367, 424, 449 Bishop's Routine Method 275

Boreholes 119, 123, 145, 148, 494 Box caisson 220, 231-3 British Standard:

BS 1377 115, 559-560, 571 BS 5930 101, 104-6, 562, 565-571 BS 8002 138-139, 198-200, 356,

405-6, 4108 BS 8004 87, 308 BS 8081 511, 521, 542, 555 Buoyancy: see Uplift

Cantilever wall 404, 407, 413 Cautious estimate 137-151, 318,

403, 423, 451 CEN: see European Committee for

Standardization Characteristic value 4, 37, 39, 45-6, 49, 135-158, 268, 402-3, 406, 414-5, 419-422, 449, 451-3, 464 CIRIA C580 139, 402-3, 406, 411, 419, 423

Coefficient of earth pressure at rest:

see Earth pressure Coefficient of variance 65, 136 Cofferdam 202, 399 Cohesive soils 103, 219, 308, 424 Comparable experience 87, 130,

258, 307, 423, 446, 512 Complementary standard 96-7 Complexity of design 4, 74 Composite wall 353, 399 Compression pile 258 Cone penetrometer test 110, 111-3,

260, 494-5 Consistency 103-4, 108, 121, 314,

362, 416, 448, 563, 574 Consolidation 80, 123, 146, 321, 346,

349-350, 409, 450, 551 Construction Products Directive 1, 6

Correlation factor 18, 179, 464-7,

472-4, 520 Critical hydraulic gradient 218-9

Deadman anchorage: see anchorage Deep mixing 5, 549-550, 556 Deep vibration 5, 549, 552, 556 Deflection 30, 174, 253-5 Density of coarse soils 102-3 Depth factor 312, 314, 325, 339, 345, 377, 382

Depth of investigation points 4,

100, 263, 305, 353-4, 399-400 Derived value 112, 129-131, 134,

142, 563, 569 Design by:

calculation 4, 85-7, 448, 464, 476 observation 4, 74, 85, 87-8, 99, 308, 403

prescriptive measures 4, 74, 85,

87, 278 testing 4, 50, 87-8, 464-5 Design Approach:

Design Approach 1 184-9, 193, 209, 269, 271-2, 276-7, 318-9,

Design Approach 2 189-191, 199, 269-270, 276, 314-5, 320,

359, 414, 416, 460-1 Design Approach 3 191-4, 270,

(general) 290, 292, 579 for infinite slope 271, 579, 577-8 for finite slope 227, 579-580 for active and passive earth pressures 581-8 Design investigation 99 Design method 5, 72-3, 85, 176-7, 355, 368, 417, 443, 446, 537, 547, 551

73-5, 516 Design situation 4-5, 30, 39, 41-2, 50-2, 56, 60-5, 72-81, 182-3, 188-194, 205, 209, 256, 263-4, 305-6, 322, 353-4, 363, 399-401, 443-4, 456-462, 471, 509-510, 542 Desk study 77, 567 Dewatering 91

Diaphragm wall 5, 424, 539-540 Direct assessment 134 Discontinuities 104-5, 565 Downdrag (negative skin friction) 450-2

Durability 8, 25, 27, 84, 514, 553 Dynamic impact test 445, 448, 450, 465, 467, 473

Earth pressure:

at rest 134, 407-9, 422, 512 active 175, 207, 212, 316, 360, 365-6, 410, 412, 414-7, 582-8 passive 197, 199, 258, 320-1, 358-9, 366, 399, 431-2, 439, 441, 575, 581-8 limiting value of 409 Eccentric loading 310 Effective foundation area 310 Embankment 2, 5, 75, 79, 85, 91,

263-304, 444, 567-8 Embedded wall 2, 5, 353, 399-425 Empiricism 4, 112, 129, 133 Eurocode:

Eurocode (EN 1990) 4, 8, 11, 17, 25-39, 43-56, 78, 135, 137, 151, 173-7, 182, 194, 201, 205-6, 253-4, 569 Eurocode 1 (EN 1991) 8, 11, 38,

398-9, 442 Eurocode 3 (EN 1993) 8 Eurocode 4 (EN 1994) 8 Eurocode 5 (en 1995) 8

Eurocode 6 (EN 1996) 8 Eurocode 8 (en 1998) 9, 17 Eurocode 9 (en 1999) 9, 11, 29 European Committee for Standardization (CEN) 1, 3, 11, 13-7, 195, 448, 511, 515, 520, 529, 532, 535, 537, 539, 542-3, 545, 547, 549, 551, 554 Example: see Worked example Execution 2, 5, 14-5, 18, 71, 75, 84-7, 109, 356, 368-9, 404, 424, 474, 510-1, 520, 529-556 Execution standard:

EN 1536 424, 474, 530-2, 555 EN 1537 85, 424, 510-1, 513-6, 519-521, 523, 525-7, 539-543 EN 1538 424, 539-540, 555 EN 12063 424, 474, 537-8, 555 EN 12699 424, 474, 532-5, 555 EN 12715 545-7, 556 EN 12716 545, 547-8, 556 EN 14199 474, 535-7, 555 EN 14475 368, 398-9, 543-5, 555 EN 14490 545, 556 EN 14679 549-550, 556 EN 14731 549, 551-2, 556 EN 15237 551, 553-4, 556

Factual report: see Report Failure:

by heave 215-220 by uplift 210-5 in the ground 78, 173-199, 452 in the structure 173-199, 306 Field test:

558-561 applicability 113 objectives 111, 115 Filters 219-220 Finite elements 87, 314, 421 Fixed-earth conditions 407, 409 Footing:

allowable bearing pressure 133, 308, 314

bearing resistance 307-8, 311,

313-5, 323-4 eccentric load 310 effective foundation area 310 foundations on rock 305 presumed bearing resistance

307-8 settlement 314, 321-4 sliding resistance 317-8, 320, 324

structural design 305, 323 Free-earth conditions 408-9 Friction: see Angle of wall friction,

Interface friction, Skin friction Fundamental requirements 75

GDR (Geotechnical Design Report):

see Report Geometry 49, 52, 138-9, 182, 244, 278, 564

Geometrical data 4, 30, 49, 52-3, 72, 85, 100, 177, 178, 182, 202, 353, 399

Geotechnical Category 4, 74-6, 89, 137

Geotechnical Design Report (GDR):

see Report Geotechnical action: see Action Geotechnical baseline report: see Report

Geotechnical investigation 74, 77,

97-9, 535 Geotechnical parameter 4, 84, 106, 109, 113, 116, 129-137, 142-3, 151-9, 231, 563 GIR (Ground Investigation Report):

see Report Gravity wall 2, 5, 353-399 Ground anchor: see Anchorage Ground characterization 4, 129-172 Ground conditions:

(general) 75, 77, 87, 89, 135, 146, 308, 447-8, 468, 510, 513, 515, 559, 564, 566, 568 checking 89, 92 Ground Investigation Report (GIR):

see Report Ground report: see Report Ground movement 75, 264, 278, 450, 454

Ground property 84, 92, 96-7, 156,

309, 545, 551 Ground stiffness 418 Ground water 79-83, 97, 222, 278,

325, 383, 390 Groundwater measurement system 109-110

Grouted anchorage: see Anchorage Grouting 5, 353, 443, 517, 532, 545-8, 567

Hammer blow test: see Dynamic impact test Heave 77-8, 201-2, 215-6, 219-220,

258, 401 Hydraulic failure: by piping 249

201-5, 210, 557 by internal erosion 219

Informative annex 18 Interface friction 208-9, 212, 311,

317, 362, 364, 366, 414, 581-8 Internal erosion 201, 215, 219-220, 264

International Standardization Organization (ISO) 2, 3, 14-6, 85, 95, 101-6, 109-117, 447-8, 510-1, 520, 551, 558-562 Investigation test: see Anchorage ISO: see International Standardization Organization

Jet grouting 5, 545, 547, 548, 556

Laboratory test 4-5, 96-9, 104, 114-7, 129, 134, 140, 143-8, 156, 420, 560-9 Lambeth Clay 4, 131, 140-6, 489 Limit analysis 314 Limit equilibrium: see Limiting equilibrium Limiting equilibrium 272, 278,

407-8, 417-8 Limit state:

design: see Limit state design EQU 4, 32-3, 51, 53, 77, 87,

199, 206, 209, 403, 557, 576 HYD 4, 32, 73, 77, 87, 205, 220, 557

ULS: see Ultimate limit state UPL 4, 32, 73, 77, 87, 205, 220 SLS: see Serviceability limit state STR 4, 18, 51, 77, 87, 176, 184, 199, 206, 209, 403, 557, 576 Limit state design:

(general) 4, 21, 29-31, 73, 209 Serviceability 72, 267, 305, 353, 399, 549

Limiting serviceability criteria 255 Load and resistance factor design

(LRFD) 198-9 Load and strength factor design 197

Lock-off load 513-6 Log-normal distribution 151-3 London Clay 131, 140, 143, 146, 471 LRFD: see Load and resistance factor design

Material property 4, 30, 44-5, 49, 51-2, 78, 85, 135, 175, 177-8, 180-8, 191-3, 202, 204, 211, 256, 272, 276, 321, 413, 419-422, 457, 460, 462, 464, 529 Middle-third rule 208, 310 Mobilization factor 258 Model factor 18, 419, 456, 462, 464, 471, 512

Moderately conservative 138-9, 402-3

Monitoring 4-5, 72, 76, 88-9, 109, 263, 278, 323, 369, 424, 474, 509, 530, 532, 539, 545, 554, 564, 567, 570

National Annex:

(general) 7, 17-8, 27, 87, 182-5, 195, 199, 205, 213, 313, 319, 359, 402-3, 406, 409, 456-7, 464, 470-5, 518, 520, 545 to EN 1990: see UK National

Annex to EN 1990 to EN 1997-1: see UK National Annex to EN 1997-1 National standards body (NSB) 3,

11, 14-18 Nationally Determined Parameter

(NDP) 18 NCCI: see Non-conflicting complementary information Non-conflicting complementary information (NCCI) 402 Normal distribution 45, 151-4 Notes and references 6, 21-4, 68-9, 93-4, 125-7, 170-2, 200, 251, 261, 304, 351-2, 397-9, 440-2, 507-8, 526-7, 555-6, 571 NSB: see National standards body Numerical method 323, 418, 421

Overall stability 78, 91, 263-4, 354, 402

Overdig: see Unplanned excavation Overconsolidated clay 143, 369 Overturning moment 32, 81, 202, 207-8, 272-4, 420-1

Passive earth pressure: see Earth pressure

Passive resistance 321, 362, 390, 421, 431

Penetration test 126, 130, 558, 563-5 Pile-driving formulae 445, 448-9,

465, 473 Pile:

462, 475 bearing resistance 449 bored 456-7, 469, 472 correlation factor 464-7, 472-4 design consideration 443-4 design method 443, 446 displacement pile 471-4 downdrag 450-452 driving formula 445, 448-9, 465,

473, 475 in compression 449-450 in tension 452-4 limit state 443-5, 452, 470-1, 475 load test: see Pile load test settlement 444, 451-2, 468, 471 shaft resistance 448-9, 453-7,

460, 462, 464, 471 structural design 443 supervision of construction 443 traditional design 468 transversely loaded 444 Pile load test:

467, 473, 475 static 445-8, 465, 467, 470-1, 473, 475, 537 Piping 77, 201, 215-6, 218-220

Plate loading test 113, 126, 260, 551 Preliminary investigation 97, 99 Prescriptive:

measure 4, 74, 85, 87, 278 method 308 Pressuremeter test 260, 551, 558 Prestressed anchorage: see

357, 511, 561-3, 574-6 Probability density function 45, 65,

Quality class 106-7

References: see Notes and references Reinforced fill 5, 117, 368, 543-5 Reliability 3-4, 8, 25, 30, 50, 73, 80, 83, 110, 133, 138, 158, 177, 185-6, 189, 191, 197, 202, 218, 256, 270, 279, 355, 402-3, 413, 454, 457, 460, 462, 464, 470, 472, 576 Report:

drilling and sampling 558 factual 567, 570 field investigation 5, 558-9 geotechnical baseline report 567-571

Geotechnical Design Report (GDR) 4-5, 89, 93, 323, 356-7, 404, 557, 561, 563-5, 569-570 ground 567, 571 Ground Investigation Report (GIR) 5, 93, 557, 561-2, 564, 569-571 laboratory test 5, 560 Representative value 39, 51, 138-9 Resistance:

characteristic base 449 characteristic shaft 449, 476 drained bearing 311, 313 drained sliding 317, 320

earth 183, 191 ground 508

pull-out 510-3, 516-8, 528 sliding 176, 183, 191, 199, 207,

317-8, 320, 363, 367 undrained bearing 313 undrained sliding 320 Retaining wall:

action 353, 358, 360-370, 399,

405, 408, 413-421 design approach 358, 402-3,

413-4, 416-7, 419-421 earth pressure 353, 358-360, 362, 365-6, 368, 399, 405, 407-423 geometrical data 353, 399 limit states 353-6, 368, 370, 399,

401, 403-4, 414-5, 419-424 serviceability limit state design of 353, 399 ultimate limit state design of 353, 399

441, 577 Rock:

description 104, 127 material strength 104

Safety factor 134, 138-9, 218, 258,

267, 269, 468, 472 Sampling 4-5, 106-7, 149, 558, 561, 563

Sample quality class: see Quality class

Screw anchorage: see Anchorage Seepage 79, 105, 215, 217-220,

244-259, 279, 284 Selection of water levels 357, 407 Serviceability limit state (SLS) 4, 29-30, 35, 42, 77-8, 82, 87, 253-261, 321-4, 356, 368, 403-4, 422-3, 452, 470-1, 475 Sheet pile wall 5, 406, 424, 474,

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