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Soil stresses at depth of water table along virtual back of wall vertical total stress a^ w = Ykx dw = 27 kPa pore pressure uw = 0kPa vertical effective stress a'vkw = avk w - uw = 27 kPa© Soil stresses at wall heel vertical total stress a^ h = Ykx (H + d) = 63 kPa height of water table hw = H + d - dw = 2m pore pressure uh = Yw x hw = 19.6 kPa vertical effective stress a'vkh = CTvk h - uh = 43.4 kPa©

Effects of actions

Partial factors, Sets rA1 a vA2 y

YG,fav

Design vertical actions (unfavourable)

uh water upthrust Ud = yg x x B

(403.6A kN

m effective V'd = Vd - Ud = Design vertical actions (favourable)

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