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Examples: spread, raft, and pile foundations; walls and other structures retaining or supporting soil or water; excavations; bridge piers and abutments; embankments and earthworks; ground anchors and other tie-back systems; tunnels in hard, non-fractured rock, not subject to special water-tightness or other requirements

3 Structures or parts of Include alternative provisions and rules to those in structures not covered Eurocode 7 above

Examples: very large or unusual structures; structures involving abnormal risks or unusual or exceptionally difficult ground or loading conditions; structures in highly seismic areas; structures in areas of probable site instability or persistent ground movements that require separate investigation or special measures

The design requirements and procedure for GC3 warrant comment, since it is not immediately clear what 'include alternative provisions and rules' means. Eurocode 7 does not say 'use alternative Principles and rules' (even though the word 'provisions' could be taken to include the Principles). Our understanding of this is that designs should follow the Principles of Eurocode 7, but the Application Rules provided in the standard may not be sufficient on their own to satisfy those Principles. Hence alternative (and/or additional) rules may be required.

It is not necessary to classify all parts of a project in one Geotechnical Category. Indeed, many projects will comprise a mixture of GC1 and GC2 (and in some cases GC3) elements, as illustrated in Figure 3.2.

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