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The two piles with less than 30mm settlement at peak load were founded on siltstone within the London Clay, whereas the other piles were founded on London Clay. The settlement reading for the last pile is an underestimate, owing to instrument failure.

A group of piles, with diameter D = 600mm and length L = 25m, are each required to carry a permanent action FGk = 1500kN together with a variable action FQk = 700kN. The weight density of reinforced concrete is kN

Measured resistance

Assume that the majority of the measured resistance from the pile load tests comes from shaft resistance. Regard the results of the first and fifth load tests as unrepresentative because the pile toes are founded on a siltstone layer. Also ignore the results of the fourth load test since it was conducted on a significantly shorter pile than the others. The results from the remaining tests on piles with different embedded lengths can then be

'normalized' to the same length as the piles being designed, as follows: ©

Length of shaft ignored is L0 = 5 m

Normalized measured resistance Rm =

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