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Q, Q, values are amended in the UK National Annexes to BS ENs 1990 and 1997-1. The following table summarizes the factors that must be used, for persistent and transient design situations, and Figure 7.3 shows the relative magnitude of the key parameters when checking the EQU, UPL, and HYD limit states.

Parameter Ultimate limit state

EQU UPL HYD

Permanent Destabilizing YG,dst 1.1 1.0 [1.1] 1.35 actions (G) Bridges 1.05

Stabilizing YG,stb 0.9 0.9 0.9

Bridges 0.95

Variable actions (Q)

Destabilizing

YQ,dst 1.5

Road 1.35 Pedest. 1.35 Rail 1.45 Wind 1.4 Thermal 1.5

0 0

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