5 20 25 30 1 35 h 4

Angle of shearing resistance, $ (degrees) Figure 12.9. Passive earth pressure coefficients for 5 = 20°

12.4.5 Passive earth pressure: resistance or action?

A question of particular importance in the design of retaining walls is: should passive earth pressures be regarded as a resistance or as an action?

Reliability is introduced into the design of embedded cantilever walls by applying partial factors to actions, material properties, or resistance (or to a combination of these variables). The table below summarizes the values of these factors for each of Eurocode 7's Design Approaches (see Chapter 6).

Partial factor Design Approach
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