Notes and references

1. Gulvanessian, H., Calgaro, J.-A., and Holicky, M. (2002) Designer's guide to EN 1990, Eurocode: Basis of structural design, Thomas Telford Publishing.

2. EN 1990: 2002, Eurocode — Basis of structural design, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels.

3. EN 1991, Eurocode 1 — Actions on structures, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels.

Parts 1-4: General actions — Wind actions.

Part 2: Traffic loads on bridges.

Part 3: Actions induced by cranes and machinery.

4. EN 1993, Eurocode 3 — Design of steel structures, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels.

Parts 1-9: General rules — Fatigue.

5. EN 1999, Eurocode 9 — Design of aluminium structures, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels.

Parts 1-3: Structures susceptible to fatigue.

6. Isaac Newton (1687) Principia Mathematica: Laws of Motion 3 (translated from the Latin 'Actioni contrarium semper et aequalem esse reactionem' by Andrew Motte, 1729).

7. This follows from the central limit theorem, 'one of the most important theorems in probability theory'. See p. 168 of Ang, A. H-S., and Tang, W. H. (2006) Probability concepts in engineering: emphasis on applications in civil and environmental engineering, John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

8. BS 2846-4: 1976 Guide to statistical interpretation of data - Part 4: Techniques of estimation and tests relating to means and variances, British Standards Institution.

9. Gulvanessian, ibid., p59.

10. From the Wikipedia article on 'Structural design' downloaded January 2008 (see

12. The original version of this example appeared in: Curtin, W.G., Shaw, G., Parkinson, G.I., and Golding, J.M. (1994) Structural foundation designer's manual, Blackwell Science.

13. Information for this example was kindly provided by Chris Hendy and Claire Seward of Atkins, Epsom (pers. comm, 2007).

14. Ang and Tang, ibid., Example 6.1, pp. 250-251. Values converted from ksi to MPa.

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