## Piles subject to transverse actions

Figure 13.7 shows a pile subject to transverse loading. This may be due to horizontal loads and moments applied at the head of the pile or due to lateral ground movements.

The characteristic horizontal action is:

Hk = HGk +Y^iHQk ,i i where HGk and HQk are characteristic permanent and variable components of H; and ^ is the combination factor applicable to the ith variable action (see Chapter 2).

Whether the horizontal resistance is Figure 13.7. Single pile subject to governed by the lateral resistance of the transverse achons ground or a combination of ground and pile strength depends on the pile's stiffness and length and the strength-to-stiffness ratio of the ground. Furthermore, the horizontal resistance is also governed by any fixity of the pile head. 'Short' piles are those where the horizontal resistance is governed by the ground strength alone:

whereas 'long' piles are those where the resistance is governed by both pile and ground strength:

where HRk is the characteristic horizontal resistance of the pile.

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