Serviceability limit states (SLSs) are concerned with the functioning of the structure, the comfort of people, and the appearance of the construction works. [EN 1990 §3.4(1)P]
To prevent serviceability limit states from occurring, design effects of actions Ed - which in this instance are entities such as settlement, distortion, strains, etc. - must be less than or equal to the corresponding limiting value of that effect Cd, i.e.:
as illustrated in Figure 2.10.
Returning to the example of Figure 2.7, if the maximum settlement that the gantry can tolerate is sCd = 15 mm and the calculated settlement under the design actions is sEd = 12 mm, then the serviceability limit state is avoided, since:
In this book, we define the 'utilization factor' for the serviceability limit state as the ratio of the effect of actions to its corresponding limiting value: E
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