Ultimate limit states

Ultimate limit states (ULSs) are concerned with the safety of people and the structure. [EN 1990 ยง3.3(1)P]

EN 1990 identifies three ULSs that must be verified where relevant: loss of equilibrium (EQU); failure by excessive deformation, transformation into a mechanism, rupture, or loss of stability (STR); and failure caused by fatigue or other time-related effects (FAT). (Limit states GEO, UPL, and HYD, which are relevant to geotechnical design, are discussed in Chapters 6 and 7.) These three-letter acronyms are used throughout the Eurocodes as shorthand for the limit states, which, for structures, are defined more fully as follows.

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