where icrit is the critical hydraulic gradient (numerically . 1). For this situation, we conclude that the partial factors specified for limit state HYD are equivalent to a global factor of 1.5 on the critical hydraulic gradient icrit. Traditional advice suggests a 'safety factor of 1.5 to 2 is desired against piping or heaving' for this situation5 and (more onerously) 'a factor of safety ... of 4 to 5 is considered adequate'6.

The characteristic pore water pressure acting on the underside of the shaded block is:

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