jydz + q - u - 2cy]Ka (1 + a / c) + i where oa and op are the active and passive total stresses normal to the wall; Ka and Kp are active and passive earth pressure coefficients; y, q, and u are as defined in Section 12.4.3; c is the soil's effective cohesion; a the adhesion between ground and wall (limited to 0.5c); and z the depth below ground.

Annex C provides charts for determining the active and passive earth pressure coefficients for use in these expressions. They are identical to those that appeared in BS 8002: 199423 and are based on the work of Kerisel and Absi24.

Annex C also provides a numerical procedure25 for determining active and passive effective earth pressures, o'a and o'p respectively, from the following equations:

<= Kar \rdz - u + Kaqq - KacC and = Kpy J Ydz - U + Kpqq + Kpcc

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