Actions: tP = pre-stress; ^Q1 = leading variable; ttQj = accompanying variable; = accidental; AE = seismic

Values of ^ are given for imposed loads in EN 1991-1-1, for snow loads in EN 1991-1-3, for wind loads EN 1990 Annex A1, and for temperature loads in EN 1991-1-5. For buildings, values for typically range between 0.5 and 0.7, for between 0.2 and 0.7, and for between 0.3 and 0.6.

In summary, representative actions arise from considering various combinations of characteristic actions for the particular design situation being verified:

characteristic actions Fk ^ combinations = representative actions F

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