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In Design Approach 2, partial factors are applied as late as possible in the calculation process, to action effects and resistances. This is a particular form of load and resistance factor design discussed in Section 6.4.3.

6.3.3 Design Approach 3

The philosophy of Eurocode 7's Design Approach 3 is to check the foundation's reliability by applying partial factors to structural actions and to material properties simultaneously, while geotechnical actions and resistance are left mainly unfactored. (See below for discussion of the difference between structural and geotechnical actions.)

This is achieved by using partial factors from Sets A1 or A2 (on structural and geotechnical actions respectively), M2, and R3, as illustrated in Figure 6.15. The crosses on the diagram indicate that the partial factors in Set R3 are all 1.0 (except for those applied to tensile pile resistance) and hence most resistances are unfactored. The cross against Aa indicates that tolerances are not normally applied to nominal dimensions.

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