It

4A2G

which, for tubes of constant thickness, reduces to

9 Ts xs

L 4A2Gt TAG where s is the length or perimeter of the median line.

Thin-walled cellular sections may be solved using the concept of constant shear flow q(= Tt), bearing in mind that the angles of twist of all cells or constituent parts are assumed equal.

5.1. Rectangular sections

Detailed analysis of the torsion of non-circular sections which includes the warping of cross-sections is beyond the scope of this text. For rectangular shafts, however, with longer side d and shorter side b, it can be shown by experiment that the maximum shearing stress occurs at the centre of the longer side and is given by

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