For torsion of rectangular sections the maximum shear stress rmax and angle of twist are given by k,db2

L k2db3G

k\ and k2 being two constants, their values depending on the ratio d/b and being given in Table 5.1.

Thin-walled open sections may be considered as combinations of narrow rectangular sections so that

L Hk2db3G GY,db3

The relevant formulae for other non-rectangular, non-tubular solid shafts are given in Table 5.2.

For thin-walled closed sections the stress at any point is given by

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