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53. Thin-walled open sections

There are many cases, particularly in civil engineering applications, where rolled steel or extruded alloy sections are used where some element of torsion is involved. In most cases the sections consist of a combination of rectangles, and the relationships given in eqns. (5.1) and (5.2) can be adapted with reasonable accuracy provided that:

(a) the sections are "open", i.e. angles, channels. T-sections, etc., as shown in Fig. 5.2;

(b) the sections are thin compared with the other dimensions.

For such sections eqns. (5.1) and (5.2) may be re-written in the form

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