Lkq

where a = ay/n2E, theoretically, but having a value normally found by experiment for various materials. This will take into account other types of end condition. Therefore Rankine load

Typical values of a for use in the Rankine formula are given in Table 2.3. However, since the values of a are not exactly equal to the theoretical values, the Rankine loads for long struts will not be identical to those estimated by the Euler theory as suggested earlier.

Table 2.3.

Material

<tv or ac (MN/m2)

a

Pinned ends

Fixed ends

Low carbon steel

0 -1

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