where a = ay/n2E, theoretically, but having a value normally found by experiment for various materials. This will take into account other types of end condition. Therefore Rankine load

Typical values of a for use in the Rankine formula are given in Table 2.3. However, since the values of a are not exactly equal to the theoretical values, the Rankine loads for long struts will not be identical to those estimated by the Euler theory as suggested earlier.

Table 2.3.


<tv or ac (MN/m2)


Pinned ends

Fixed ends

Low carbon steel

0 -1

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