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Part 2: ENV 1991

Part 1: ENV 1993 Part 1.1: ENV 1994 Part 1.1: ISO 1000 ISO 4997

Specification for continuously hot-dip zinc coated structural steel sheet - Technical delivery conditions',

Hot rolled flat products made of high yield strength steels for cold forming: Delivery conditions for normalized/normalized rolled steels; Delivery conditions for thermomechanical rolled steels;

Structural steels with improved atmospheric corrosion resistance - Technical delivery conditions;

Execution of steel structures:

Rules for cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting; Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures: Basis of design;

Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures: General rules : General rules and rules for buildings; Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures: General rules : General rules and rules for buildings; SI units;

Cold reduced steel sheet of structural quality.

1.4 Definitions

Supplementary to ENV 1993-1-1, for the purposes of this Part 1.3 of ENV 1993, the following definitions apply:

1.4.1 basic material: The flat sheet steel material out of which cold formed sections and profiled sheets are made by cold forming.

1.4.2 basic yield strength: The tensile yield strength of the basic material.

1.4.3 diaphragm action: Structural behaviour involving in-plane shear in the sheeting.

1.4.4 liner tray: Profiled sheet with large lipped edge stiffeners, suitable for interlocking with adjacent liner trays to form a plane of ribbed sheeting that is capable of supporting a parallel plane of profiled sheeting spanning perpendicular to the span of the liner trays.

1.4.5 partial restraint: Restriction of the lateral or rotational movement, or the torsional or warping deformation, of a member or plane element, that increases its buckling resistance in a similar way to a spring support, but to a lesser extent than a rigid support.

1.4.6 relative slenderness: A normalized slenderness ratio.

NOTE: In ENV 1993-1-1 relative slenderness is termed "non-dimensional slenderness".

1.4.7 restraint: Restriction of the lateral or rotational movement, or the torsional or warping deformation, of a member or plane element, that increases its buckling resistance to the same extent as a rigid support.

1.4.8 stressed-skin design: A design method that allows for the contribution made by diaphragm action in the sheeting to the stiffness and strength of a structure.

1.4.9 support: A location at which a member is able to transfer forces or moments to a foundation, or to another member or other structural component.

1.5 Symbols

(1) In addition to those given in ENV 1993-1-1, the following main symbols are used: C Rotational spring stiffness;

K Linear spring stiffness; 0 Rotation.

(2) In addition to those given in ENV 1993-1-1, the following subscripts are used: d Developed;

red Reduced; spn Span; sup Support; TF Torsional-flexural.

(3) In addition to those used in ENV 1993-1-1, the following major symbols are used: b? Notional flat width of plane element;

hw Web height, measured between system lines of flanges; sw Slant height of a web, measured between midpoints of corners.

(4) Further symbols are defined where they first occur.

(1)P S.I. units shall be used in accordance with ISO 1000.

(2) The following units are recommended for use in calculations: forces and loads: kN, kN/m, kN/m2;

unit mass: unit weight: stresses and strengths: bending moments: torsional moments:

1.7 Termjnology

1.7.1 Form of sections

(1) Cold formed members and profiled sheets are steel products made from coated or uncoated hot rolled or cold rolled flat products. Within the permitted tolerances, they have a constant thickness over their entire length and may have either a constant or a variable cross-section.

NOTE: These products are obtained solely by cold forming, for example profiled by a rolling machine or formed by a press or press brake.

(2) The cross-sections of cold formed members and profiled sheets essentially comprise a number of curved elements joined by plane elements.

(3) Typical forms of sections for cold formed members include:

- single open sections as shown in figure 1.1(a);

- open built-up sections as shown in figure 1.1(b);

- closed built-up sections as shown in figure 1.1(c).

(4) Examples of cross-sections for cold formed members and sheets are illustrated as follows:

- compression members and tension members, in figure 1.2(a);

- beams and other members subject to bending, in figure 1.2(b);

- profiled sheets and liner trays, in figure 1.2(c).

(5) Cross-sections of cold formed members and sheets can either be unstiffened or incorporate longitudinal stiffeners in their webs or flanges, or in both.

1.7.2 Form of stiffeners

(1) Typical forms of stiffeners for cold formed members and sheets include:

- folded or curved grooves, see figure 1.3(b);

- other sections, bolted, rivetted or welded on, see figure 1.3(c).

(2) Longitudinal flange stiffeners can be either edge stiffeners or intermediate stiffeners.

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