Info

Pi

>

4,5 d

for d =

5,2 mm:

'sup ^

8,0 mm

For tension: 0,5 mm < t < 1,5 mm rQlin > 6,0 mm

For tension: 0,5 mm < t < 1,5 mm rQlin > 6,0 mm

These values assume that the washer has sufficient rigidity to prevent it from being deformed appreciably or pulled over the head of the fastener.

Cartridge fired pins may be use*! beyond this range of validity if the resistance is determined from the results of tests in accordance with Section 9.

Table 8.4: Design resistances for bolts

Bolts loaded in shear:

Bearing resistance: ^b,Rd = 2,5/urfr/7M2 but FbRd < fueltl\y2/yM2

Net-section resistance:

^n,Rd = o +3r(d0/w -0,3)Mnet/u/7M2 but Fn>Rd <Aneifu/yM2 with:

r = [number of bolts at the cross-section] / [total number of bolts in the connection]

Shear resistance:

FwRd = 0,6fubAs/yM2

Conditions:

Bolts loaded in tension:

Pull-through resistance: Pull-through resistance Fp Rd to be determined by testing.

Pull-out resistance: Not relevant for bolts.

Tension resistance:

Range of validity: ^

el > 1,5 d px > 3d t > 1,25mm Minimum bolt size: M6

Bolts may be used beyond this range of validity if the resistance is determined from the results of tests in accordance with Section 9.

Page 82

ENV1993-1-3:1996 8.5 Spot welds

(1)P Spot welds may be used with as-rolled or galvanized parent material up to 4,0 mm thick, provided that the thinner connected part is not more than 3,0 mm thick.

(2) Spot welds may be either resistance welded or fusion welded.

(3)P The design resistance Fv Rd of a spot weld loaded in shear shall be determined using table 8.5.

(4)P In table 8.5 the meanings of the symbols shall be taken as follows: Anei is the net cross-sectional area of the connected part;

t is the thickness of the thinner connected part or sheet [mm];

tx is the thickness of the thicker connected part or sheet; and the end and edge distances ex and e2 and the spacings px and p2 are as defined in 8.4(4)P.

(5)P The partial factor 7M for calculating the design resistances of spot welds shall be taken as: 7M2 = 1X25

Table 8.5: Design resistances for spot welds

Spot welds loaded in shear:

Tearing and bearing resistance: - if t < tx < 2,51 :

2jj3tdsfu/lM2 -if tx> 2,51:

FtbM = 2,7/3frfs/u/7M2 '^t FtbRd < 0Jds2fu/yM2 and FtbRd < 3,1^s/u/TM2

End resistance:

Fe,Rd = M**I/u/7M2 Net section resistance:

Shear resistance:

Conditions:

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