M

1,25

(4)P For values of yM for resistances of connections, see Section 8 of this Part 1.3.

2.3 Serviceability limit states

(1)P The principles for serviceability limit states given in Sections 2 and 4 of Part 1.1 of ENV 1993 shall also be applied to cold formed thin gauge members and sheeting, see 7.1(1)P in this Part 1.3.

(2) The application rules for serviceability limit states given in Sections 2 and 4 of Part 1.1 of ENV 1993 should also be applied, except where different application rules are given in Section 7 of this Part 1.3.

(3)P For verifications at serviceability limit states the partial factor 7M,ser shall be taken as follows:

2.4 Design assisted by testing

(1)P Verifications for ultimate limit states or serviceability limit states that rely on the results of testing shall be in accordance with Section 9.

(2) Test specimens for sheet profiles should normally comprise at least two complete corrugations, but a test specimen may comprise just one complete corrugation, provided that the stiffness of the corrugations is sufficient.

2.5 Durability

(1)P To ensure adequate durability of cold formed components under conditions relevant to both their intended use and their intended life, the following inter-related factors shall be taken into account at the design stage:

- the intended use of the structure;

- the required performance criteria;

- the expected environmental conditions;

- the composition, properties and performance of the materials;

- the effects of connecting different materials together;

- the shape of the members and the structural detailing;

- the quality of the workmanship and the level of control;

- the particular protective measures;

- the likely maintenance during the intended life.

(2)P The internal and external environmental conditions shall be estimated at the design stage in order to assess their significance in relation to durability and enable adequate provisions to be made for the protection of the materials.

(3) Special attention should be given to cases in which different materials are intended to act compositely, if these materials are such that electrochemical phenomena might produce conditions leading to corrosion.

(4) The environmental conditions prevailing from the time of manufacture, including those during transport and storage on site, should be taken into account.

3 Properties of materials and cross-sections 3.1 Structural steel 3.1.1 General

(1)P All steels used for cold formed members and profiled sheets shall be suitable for cold forming and welding. Steels used for members and sheets to be galvanized shall also be suitable for galvanizing.

(2)P The methods for design by calculation given in this Part 1.3 of ENV 1993 may be used for structural steels conforming with the European Standards and International Standards listed in table 3.1.

Table 3.1: Nominal values of basic yield strength f b and ultimate tensile strength /

Type of steel

Standard

Grade

/yb N/mnr

/U 2 N/mnr

Hot rolled steel sheet of structural quality

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