Def

ser.fin (EC5, equation (2.12)) (2.40) where the functions are as previously defined and f 2 is the factor for the quasipermanent value of the action causing the largest stress in relation to the strength. If this is a permanent action, a value of 1 should be used. If the determination of f 2 is assessed to be a complicated or difficult exercise, a safe result will be obtained by adopting a value of 1 for the factor (see Table 2.2 for the value of f 2). (c) When undertaking a second-order...

Eurocodes General Structure

Eurocodes form a set of documents that will enable building and civil engineering structures to be designed to common standards across the European Union using different structural materials. The documents are structured on a hierarchical basis, led by EN 1990, Eurocode - Basis of structural design, defining the basis of structural design, followed by EN 1991, Eurocode 1 Actions on structures, which comprises ten parts, defining the actions that have to be withstood. These documents are...

Info

Compliance with the RC2 class, the minimum standard will require checking by different persons to those originally responsible for the design and in accordance with the quality management system of the organisation (EC0, Annex B, Table B4). 2.2.4 Design working life (EC0,2.3) At the start of the design process the 'design working life' of the facility to be designed must be specified and is defined in EC0 as the 'assumed period for which a structure or part of it is to be used for its intended...

Plywood

Plywood is a flat panel made by bonding together, and under pressure, a number of thin layers of veneer, often referred to as plies (or laminates). Plywood was the first type of EWP to be invented. Logs are debarked and steamed or heated in hot water for about 24 hours. They are then rotary-peeled into veneers of 2-4 mm in thickness and clipped into sheets of some 2 m wide. After kiln-drying and gluing, the veneers are laid up with the grain perpendicular to one another and bonded under...

Suspended Timber Flooring

A suspended flooring system generally comprises a series of joists closely spaced, being either simply supported at their ends or continuous over load-bearing partition walls. The floor boarding or decking is applied on the top of the joists and underneath ceiling linings are fixed. A typical suspended floor arrangement is shown in Figure 1.18a. The distance between the centres of the joists is normally governed by the size of the decking and ceiling boards, which are normally available in...

Structural Timber Design Examples

As stated in 4.3, Chapter 4, in order to verify the ultimate and serviceability limit states, each design effect has to be checked and for each effect the largest value caused by the relevant combination of actions must be used. However, to ensure attention is primarily focussed on the EC5 design rules for the timber or wood product being used, only the design load case producing the largest design effect has generally been given or evaluated in the following examples. Example 6.7.1 A series of...

Axial Loading Of Metal Dowel Connection Systems

Perpendicular Grain

The strength equations given in the following sub-sections assume that the tensile strength of fasteners will always exceed their withdrawal capacity from the connection. If, however, there is a need to evaluate the tensile strength of the fastener, it should be carried out in accordance with the requirements of EN 1993-1-1. The withdrawal capacity of nails loaded axially is dependent on the type of nail being used. Smooth round wire nails give the poorest result and with threaded nails the...

Fhk

In deriving these equations, friction forces between the members of the connection are ignored as well as the withdrawal resistance of the fasteners. In EC5 the Johansen yield equations form the basis of the strength equations, however for those failure modes that involve yielding of the fastener, the equations have been modified to include for friction and withdrawal effects. There are two types of friction effects that can arise in a connection. One will develop if the members are in contact...

Timber Tension Member Design

As stated in 4.3, in order to verify the ultimate and serviceability limit states, each design effect has to be checked and for each effect the largest value caused by the relevant combination of actions must be used. However, to ensure attention is primarily focussed on the EC5 design rules for the timber or wood product being used, only the design load case producing the largest design effect has generally been given or evaluated in the following examples. Example 10.13.1 A timber-to-timber...

The Inplane Racking Resistance Of Timber Walls Under Horizontal And Vertical Loading

The stud walls associated with timber-framed buildings are usually sheathed on one or both faces with the sheathing securely fixed to the studs, enabling the wall to act as a rigid diaphragm. The fixings e.g. nails provide the bulk of the racking resistance through timber bearing and nail deformation when the lateral external force is applied as shown in Figure 9.8b. Horizontal sliding of the wall is resisted by anchorages such as nails or bolts along the sole plate sufficient to resist the...