Dxa

Emean,fin = , T" (EC5, equation (2.10)) (2.38)

Gmean

where the functions are as previously defined and f 2 is the factor for the quasipermanent value of the action causing the largest stress in relation to strength.

At this state, the instantaneous slip modulus, Ku, is taken to be the secant modulus of the load-slip curve at a load between 60 and 70% of the maximum load [11] and is shown for a nailed or screwed connection in Figure 10.17a. From the analysis of test results EC5 states that for design purposes, Ku is to be taken as:

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