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bh3 2 /tot = — + 2bh(a + h)2 for sections B-B and D-D (8.23)

• X1 is the slenderness ratio of each shaft, based on the shaft length having the greatest distance between adjacent pack/gusset plate positions:

Xi = V12— and must be > 30 (EC5, equation (C.12)) (8.24)

If the value obtained is less than 30, a value of at least 30 must be used in equation (8.20).

• n is the number of shafts in the spaced column.

• n is a connection factor for which values are given in Table 8.3. The factor is dependent on whether packs or gusset plates are being used, whether they are glued or mechanically connected, and on the duration of loading. The stiffer the connection, the lower the value of the factor will be.

The load-carrying capacity of the spaced column will be derived using the higher of the slenderness ratios of the column about the y-y and z-z axes and for this condition it has to be verified that:

where:

Vd/2

Vd/2

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