• At a minimum, there must be four nails or two bolts with connectors in each shear plane. Where nails are used, there must be at least four nails in a row at each end along the direction of the x-x axis of the column.

• The gusset length, t2 must equal or be greater than 2a. Design procedure for spaced columns

When considering the buckling behaviour of the spaced column shown in Figure 8.6 about the z-z axis (i.e. deflection is in the y-axis direction), the shafts behave as individual elements and the strength of the column will be the summation of the strength of each shaft about the z-z axis.

For buckling about the y-y axis (i.e. deflection is in the z-axis direction), the shear force in each shaft as well as the shear deformation in the pack/gusset plates causes additional flexural displacement in the shafts and the strength reduction arising from this effect must be taken into account in the design. This is achieved in EC5 by using an effective slenderness ratio, A.ef, which is based on an interaction of the slenderness of the spaced column section (assuming it functions in a fully composite manner) and the slenderness of the individual shafts adjusted to take into account the stiffness of the

Table 8.3 Connection factor n*
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