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Connectors-types C1 to C9


Connectors-type C10 and C11


Split-ring connectors type A


Shear-plate connectors type B


having mean densities pm>1 and pm>2 respectively, the pm used in the equations should be:

Also, if the connection is steel to timber or concrete to timber, as stated in EC5, 7.1(3), Kser should be based on the mean density, pm, of the timber member. To allow for the lack of slip in the steel or concrete member, the value of Kser may be multiplied by 2.

As for metal dowel type fasteners, when designing at the ultimate limit state the instantaneous slip modulus, Ku, is taken to be:

Where a connection is formed using single-sided connectors positioned back to back, e.g. when using single-sided toothed-plate connectors or shear-plate connectors, the stiffness of each pair of connectors (per connecting bolt) should be taken to be the stiffness of the single-sided connector as given in Table 11.4.

Due to the need to include for some tolerance in the diameter of the toothed-plate connector bolt hole to permit the bolt to be fitted, joints made with single-sided connectors will exhibit a small initial slip when being loaded and an allowance should be made for this in any deflection calculation.

No guidance is given in EC5 on whether the effective number or the full number of connectors should be used to derive the stiffness of a connection formed using toothed-plate connectors. It is recommended that as with connections formed using metal dowel type fasteners, the connection stiffness should be calculated assuming that all connectors will contribute their full stiffness irrespective of the angle of loading.

See Examples 11.12.1 and 11.12.2.

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