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1.11 Fire safety and resistance 46

1.12 References 48

2. Introduction to Relevant Eurocodes 50

2.1 Eurocodes: General structure 50

2.2 Eurocode 0: Basis of structural design (EC0) 52

2.2.1 Terms and definitions (EC0,1.5) 52

2.2.2 Basic requirements (EC0,2.1) 53

2.2.3 Reliability management (EC0,2.2) 53

2.2.6 Quality management (EC0,2.5) 55

2.2.7 Principles of limit state design: General (EC0, 3.1) 55

2.2.8 Design situations (EC0, 3.2) 56

2.2.9 Ultimate limit states (EC0, 3.3) 56

2.2.10 Serviceability limit states (EC0, 3.4) 56

2.2.11 Limit states design (EC0, 3.5) 57

2.2.12 Classification of actions (EC0, 4.1.1) 58

2.2.13 Characteristic values of actions (EC0, 4.1.2) 58

2.2.14 Other representative values of variable actions (EC0,4.1.3) 59

2.2.15 Material and product properties (EC0, 4.2) 60

2.2.16 Structural analysis (EC0, 5.1) 60

2.2.17 Verification by the partial factor method: General (EC0, 6.1) 62

2.2.18 Design values of actions (EC0, 6.3.1) 63

2.2.19 Design values of the effects of actions (EC0, 6.3.2) 63

2.2.20 Design values of material or product properties (EC0, 6.3.3) 64

2.2.21 Factors applied to a design strength at the ULS 68

2.2.22 Design values of geometrical data (EC0, 6.3.4) 68

2.2.23 Design resistance (EC0, 6.3.5) 70

2.2.25 Serviceability limit states: General (EC0, 6.5) 74

2.3 Eurocode 5: design of timber structures - Part 1-1: General - Common rules and rules for buildings (EC5) 76

2.3.1 General matters 76

2.3.2 Serviceability limit states (EC5, 2.2.3) 77

2.3.3 Load duration and moisture influences on strength (EC5, 2.3.2.1) 79

2.3.4 Load duration and moisture influences on deformations (EC5, 2.3.2.2) 80

2.3.5 Stress-strain relations (EC5, 3.1.2) 82

2.3.6 Size and stress distribution effects (EC5, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4 and 6.4.3) 83

2.3.7 System strength (EC5,6.6) 85

2.4 Symbols 87

2.5 References 92

3. Using Mathcad® for Design Calculations 94

3.1 Introduction 94

3.2 What is Mathcad? 94

3.3 What does Mathcad do? 95 3.3.1 A simple calculation 95

3.3.2 Definitions and variables 95

3.3.3 Entering text 96

3.3.4 Working with units 96

3.3.5 Commonly used Mathcad functions 98

3.4 Summary 100

3.5 References 100

4. Design of Members Subjected to Flexure 101

4.1 Introduction 101

4.2 Design considerations 101

4.3 Design value of the effect of actions 103

4.4 Member Span 103

4.5 Design for Ultimate Limit States (ULS) 104

4.5.1 Bending 104

4.5.2 Shear 115

4.5.3 Bearing (Compression perpendicular to the grain) 119

4.5.4 Torsion 123

4.5.5 Combined shear and torsion 125

4.6 Design for Serviceability Limit States (SLS) 125

4.6.1 Deformation 125

4.6.2 Vibration 129

4.7 References 133

4.8 Examples 133

5. Design of Members and Walls Subjected to Axial or Combined Axial and Flexural Actions 148

5.1 Introduction 148

5.2 Design considerations 148

5.3 Design of members subjected to axial actions 150

5.3.1 Members subjected to axial compression 150

5.3.2 Members subjected to compression at an angle to the grain 157

5.3.3 Members subjected to axial tension 162

5.4 Members subjected to combined bending and axial loading 163

5.4.1 Where lateral torsional instability due to bending about the major axis will not occur 163

5.4.2 Lateral torsional instability under the effect of bending about the major axis 167

5.4.3 Members subjected to combined bending and axial tension 168

5.5 Design of Stud Walls 169

5.5.1 Design of load-bearing walls 169

5.5.2 Out of plane deflection of load-bearing stud walls (and columns) 174

5.6 References 176

5.7 Examples 177

6. Design of Glued Laminated Members 205

6.1 Introduction 205

6.2 Design considerations 205

6.3 General 207

6.3.1 Horizontal and vertical glued-laminated timber 207

6.3.2 Design methodology 207

6.4 Design of glued-laminated members with tapered, curved or pitched curved profiles (also applicable to LVL members) 211

6.4.1 Design of single tapered beams 212

6.4.2 Design of double tapered beams, curved and pitched cambered beams 216

6.4.3 Design of double tapered beams, curved and pitched cambered beams subjected to combined shear and tension perpendicular to the grain 222

6.5 Finger joints 222 Annex 6.1 Deflection formulae for simply supported tapered and double tapered beams subjected to a point load at mid-span or to a uniformly distributed load. 222 Annex 6.2 Graphical representation of factors k and kp used in the derivation of the bending and radial stresses in the apex zone of double tapered curved and pitched cambered beams. 225

6.6 References 226

6.7 Examples 227

7. Design of Composite Timber and Wood-Based Sections 248

7.1 Introduction 248

7.2 Design considerations 249

7.3 Design of glued composite sections 249

7.3.1 Glued thin webbed beams 249

7.3.2 Glued thin flanged beams (Stressed skin panels) 260

7.4 References 268

7.5 Examples 268

8. Design of Built-Up Columns 292

8.1 Introduction 292

8.2 Design considerations 292

8.3 General 293

8.4 Bending stiffness of built-up columns 294

8.4.1 The effective bending stiffness of built-up sections about the strong (y-y) axis 295

8.4.2 The effective bending stiffness of built-up sections about the z-z axis 297

8.4.3 Design procedure 299

8.4.4 Built-up sections - spaced columns 303

8.4.5 Built-up sections - latticed columns 308

8.5 Combined axial loading and moment 311

8.6 Effect of creep at the ULS 312

8.7 References 313

8.8 Examples 313

9. Design of Stability Bracing, Floor and Wall Diaphragms 338

9.1 Introduction 338

9.2 Design considerations 338

9.3 Lateral bracing 339

9.3.1 General 339

9.3.2 Bracing of single members (subjected to direct compression) by local support 341

9.3.3 Bracing of single members (subjected to bending) by local support 344

9.3.4 Bracing for beam, truss or column systems 345

9.4 Floor and roof diaphragms 348

9.4.1 Limitations on the applicability of the method 348

9.4.2 Simplified design procedure 349

9.5 The in-plane racking resistance of timber walls under horizontal and vertical loading 351 9.5.1 The in-plane racking resistance of timber walls using

Method B in EC5 352

9.6 References 357

9.7 Examples 358

10. Design of Metal Dowel Type Connections 372

10.1 Introduction 372 10.1.1 Metal dowel type fasteners 372

10.2 Design considerations 375

10.3 Failure theory and strength equations for laterally loaded connections formed using metal dowel fasteners 375

10.3.1 Dowel diameter 382

10.3.2 Characteristic fastener yield moment (My Rk) 382

10.3.3 Characteristic Embedment strength ( fh) 383

10.3.4 Member thickness, i1 and t2 386

10.3.5 Friction effects and axial withdrawal of the fastener 388

10.3.6 Brittle failure 390

10.4 Multiple dowel fasteners loaded laterally 396

10.4.1 The effective number of fasteners 396

10.4.2 Alternating forces in connections 399

10.5 Design Strength of a laterally loaded metal dowel connection 400

10.5.1 Loaded parallel to the grain 400

10.5.2 Loaded perpendicular to the grain 400

10.6 Examples of the design of connections using metal dowel type fasteners 401

10.7 Multiple shear plane connections 401

10.8 Axial loading of metal dowel connection systems 403

10.8.1 Axially loaded nails 403

10.8.2 Axially loaded bolts 406

10.8.3 Axially loaded dowels 406

10.8.4 Axially loaded screws 406

10.9 Combined laterally and axially loaded metal dowel connections 408

10.10 Lateral stiffness of metal dowel connections at the SLS and ULS 409

10.11 Frame analysis incorporating the effect of lateral movement in metal dowel fastener connections 415

10.12 References 416

10.13 Examples 417

11. Design of Joints with Connectors 452

11.1 Introduction 452

11.2 Design considerations 452

11.3 Toothed-plate connectors 452 11.3.1 Strength behaviour 452

11.4 Ring and shear-plate connectors 459 11.4.1 Strength behaviour 459

11.5 Multiple shear plane connections 465

11.6 Brittle failure due to connection forces at an angle to the grain 466

11.7 Alternating forces in connections 466

11.8 Design strength of a laterally loaded connection 466

11.8.1 Loaded parallel to the grain 466

11.8.2 Loaded perpendicular to the grain 467

11.8.3 Loaded at an angle to the grain 468

11.9 Stiffness behaviour of toothed-plate, ring and shear-plate connectors 468

11.10 Frame analysis incorporating the effect of lateral movement in connections formed using toothed-plate, split-ring or shear-plate connectors 469

11.11 References 469

11.12 Examples 470

12. Moment Capacity of Connections Formed with Metal Dowel Fasteners or Connectors 483

12.1 Introduction 483

12.2 Design considerations 483

12.3 The effective number of fasteners in a row in a moment connection 484

12.4 Brittle failure 485

12.5 Moment behaviour in timber connections: rigid model behaviour 485

12.5.1 Assumptions in the connection design procedure 486

12.5.2 Connection design procedure 488

12.5.3 Shear strength and force component checks on connections subjected to a moment and lateral forces 490

12.6 The analysis of structures with semi-rigid connections 497

12.6.1 The stiffness of semi-rigid moment connections 497

12.6.2 The analysis of beams with semi-rigid end connections 500

12.7 References 503

12.8 Examples 504

Appendix A: Weights of Building Materials 528

Appendix B: Related British Standards for Timber Engineering in Buildings 530

Appendix C: Outline of Draft Amendment A1 to EN 1995-1-1 532

Index 536

The Example Worksheets Disks Order Form

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