In salt water


Yes Yes Possible Yes

*In accordance with BS EN 335-1:2006.

'The risk of attack can be insignificant depending on specific service situations.

*In accordance with BS EN 335-1:2006.

'The risk of attack can be insignificant depending on specific service situations.

in large sections can often be used in unprotected situations where non-combustible materials such as steel would require special fire protection.

The fire protection of timber depends on many factors including size, species type and moisture content. Smaller section sizes, low-density species and sections with cracks and fissures are more likely to ignite and burn more easily than larger and denser ones, and as such may require treatment with flame-retardant chemicals. This may also be a design requirement for situations that require the use of materials with better fire-resistance properties. The treatments used are based on formulations of water-soluble inorganic salts such as ammonium phosphate or water-soluble humidity-resistance formulations and organic resins.

The choice of fire-retardant treatment depends upon many different factors, including the standard of performance required and the conditions in which the treated timber or panel products are to be used. There is much literature available on the choice of fire-retardant treatment and information is also available from specialist organisations including the following:

• TRADA publication: Wood Information Sheet WIS 2/3-3, Flame Retardant Treatments for Timber, 2003.

• The British Wood Preserving and Damp-Proofing Association, BWPDA Manual Section II, Industrial Fire Retardant Pre-Treatment of Timber, 1999.

The fire performance of all materials to be used in buildings (of various use), including wood and wood-based products, is given in the relevant Building Regulations operating in Scotland, England and Wales, and Northern Ireland.

The design of timber structures for the accidental situations of fire exposure should be carried out in accordance with the requirements of Eurocode BS EN 1995-1-2:2004 [27] in conjunction with EN 1995-1-1 [12] and EN 1991-1-2:2002 [28]. This standard describes the principles, requirements and rules for the structural design of buildings exposed to fire, so that

— fire risks are limited with respect to the individual, neighbouring property, society, and where required, directly exposed property, in the case of fire, and

— a detailed structural fire design is carried out covering the behaviour of the structural system at elevated temperatures, the potential heat exposure and the beneficial effects of active fire protection systems, together with the uncertainties associated with these three features and the consequences of failure.

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