a where the symbols remain as defined in EC5 and:

• £ef is the penetration length of the threaded part of the screw. This will apply to each of the members in the connection and it is to be noted that when dealing with the penetration length in the pointside member, the current EC5 requirement to reduce the length by one diameter has been deleted in this amendment.

• pk is the characteristic density of the pointside material (in kg/m3).

• a is the angle between the axis of the screw and the grain direction.

Also, where a < 30°, only short-term loading will be allowed.

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