## K

Latin lower a ad anom a1 a2

a3,c a3,t a4,c a4,t a4,c b b bnet bw d dc de /h,i,k /ax,k /c,0,d /c,w,d /c,f,d

/head,k

Characteristic splitting capacity

Design racking capacity of a wall diaphragm

First moment of area

Shear force; volume

Section modulus about axis y

Section modulus about axis z

Design value of a material strength property

Characteristic value of a material strength property case letters Distance

Design value of geometrical data

Nominal value of geometrical data

Spacing, parallel to the grain, of fasteners within one row

Spacing, perpendicular to the grain, between rows of fasteners

Distance between fasteners at an unloaded end Distance between fasteners at a loaded end Distance between fasteners at an unloaded edge Distance between fasteners at a loaded edge Distance between fasteners at an unloaded edge Width

Width of panel i (method A) or wall i (method B) Clear distance between studs Web width Diameter

Connector diameter Effective diameter

Characteristic embedment strength of timber member i

Characteristic withdrawal parameter for smooth nails

Design compressive strength along the grain

Design compressive strength of a web

Design compressive strength of a flange

Characteristic compressive strength perpendicular to the grain

Design tensile strength of a flange

Characteristic embedment strength

Characteristic pull-through parameter for smooth nails

Fundamental frequency

Characteristic bending strength

Design strength about the principal y-axis

Design strength about the principal z-axis

Design strength at an angle a to the grain

Design compressive strength of plywood or OSB along the surface grain

Characteristic compressive strength of plywood or OSB perpendicular to the surface grain

Characteristic bending strength parallel to the surface grain of plywood or OSB

kc,y or kc,z kcrit kef kd kdef kdis kf, 1,kf,2,kf,3

Characteristic bending strength perpendicular to the surface grain of plywood or OSB

Design tensile strength of plywood or OSB parallel to the surface grain

Characteristic tensile strength of plywood or OSB parallel to the surface grain

Design transverse shear strength in bending parallel to the surface grain of plywood or OSB

Characteristic transverse shear strength in bending parallel to the surface grain of plywood or OSB

Characteristic transverse shear strength in bending perpendicular to the surface grain of plywood or OSB

Design tensile strength along the grain

Characteristic tensile strength along the grain

Design tensile strength at right angles to the grain

Design tensile strength of the web

Tensile strength of wire used for nails

Characteristic tensile strength of bolts

Design panel shear strength

Characteristic withdrawal strength at an angle a to the grain

Characteristic withdrawal strength perpendicular to the grain

Design shear strength

Characteristic shear strength

Characteristic rolling shear strength of plywood

Depth of member; height of wall

### Depth of the apex zone

Embedment depth; distance between centre of the most distant fastener and the loaded edge Effective depth Depth of compression flange Depth of tension flange Web depth Notch inclination Radius of gyration Bearing strength modification factor Instability factor Factor used for lateral buckling

Exponent factor to derive the effective number of fasteners in a row Dimension factor for a panel Deformation factor

Factor for taking account of the stress distribution in an apex zone Modification factors for bracing resistance Depth factor

Uniformly distributed load factor

Factor for limiting lateral deflection in bracing design; factor for length effect in LVL

Factor for the redistribution of bending stresses in a cross-section kmod kn ks kshape kshear ksys kv kvol ky or kz lei m

^pen u ucreep Ufin Ufin,G Ufin, Q, 1 ufin, Q,i u inst u inst, G u inst, Q, 1 u inst, Q , i V

Wc wcreep wfin winst wnet,fin

Modification factor for duration of load and moisture content Sheathing material factor; notch factor

Fastener spacing factor; modification factor for spring stiffness

Factor depending on the shape of the cross-section

Amplification factor for shear deflections

System strength factor

Reduction factor for notched beams

Volume factor in apex zone

Instability factor

Span; contact length

Effective length; design span of a beam

Mass per unit area

Number of frequencies below 40 Hz

### Effective number of fasteners

Design value of a distributed load; the design value of the internal stability load per unit length provided by a bracing system Equivalent uniformly distributed vertical load acting on a wall Radius of curvature Spacing

Basic fastener spacing

Inner radius of a curved or pitched cambered beam at the apex zone

Thickness

Penetration depth

Deformation; horizontal displacement of a structure or structural element

### Creep deformation Final deformation

Final deformation for a permanent action Final deformation for a leading variable action Final deformation for accompanying variable action i Instantaneous deformation

Instantaneous deformation for a permanent action, G

Instantaneous deformation for a leading variable action, Q1

Instantaneous deformation for accompanying variable action Qi

Unit impulse velocity response

Vertical deflection limit of a structural member

Pre-camber

Creep deflection limit

Final deflection limit

Instantaneous deflection limit

Net final deflection limit

Greek upper case letters n k Product of the k factors that affect the design value

Greek lower case letters a and p Angles pc Straightness factor

Yf Yf,i

Ym YM

YSd z n

Xy xz

Xrel, y

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