• kmod is the modification factor for load duration and service classes discussed in 2.2.20 and given in Table 2.4.

• ksys is the system strength factor discussed in 2.3.7.

• kh is the modification factor for member size effect, referred to in Tables 2.5 and 2.11 and discussed in 2.3.6. As the effect only applies to solid timber and LVL (when bent flatwise), as well as glulam, for design using other wood-based structural products, the factor should be taken to equal 1. Because the factor is dependent on the member size in the direction of bending, the value for bending about the y-y axis can differ from the value for bending about the x-x axis.

• fm,k is the characteristic bending strength of the timber or, in the case of a wood-based structural product, the characteristic bending strength relating to the axis of bending being considered. Strength information for timber and the commonly used wood-based structural products is given in Chapter 1.

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