## Xefz

where the symbols are defined in equation (8.10) and (E7)ef z is the effective bending stiffness about the z-z axis.

Where fasteners are used the fastener design must comply with the requirements of equations (8.13) and (8.14) (equations (B.10) and (C.5) in EC5). (iii) A.rel,y > 0.3. For this condition, the section must be symmetrical about the z-z axis, and the design condition will be:

where:

• ac,0,d,i is the axial stress in member ias defined in equation (8.16).

• kcyii is the instability factor for member i and is determined from the application of equations (5.4a), (5.5a) and (5.6) with the relative slenderness ratio, Xrel.y.i, being:

n y E0.05,i where /c , 0 , k, i and E0.05 ,i are as previously defined and Xef,y is the slenderness ratio of the member about the y-y axis, obtained from:

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