Info

Action

Symbol

Permanent actionsbc unfavourable gGsup favourable Prestress Settlement Traffic actionsi unfavourable favourable Other variable actions) unfavourable favourable Accidental actions gGinf gP

gGset gQ

NOTE For considerations of static equilibrium and other similar stability cases, the criteria of ENV 1991-1:1995, C.2.3(2) shall be applied using gGsup = 1.05 and gGinf = 0.95._

a P: persistent situation; T: transient situation; A: accidental situation.

b i.e. Self-weight of structural and non-structural elements, permanent actions caused by ground, ground-water, and free water.

c Instead of using gG (1.35) and the usual gQ for lateral earth pressure actions, the design ground properties may be introduced in accordance with ENV 1997. A model factor gsd is applied.

d In this verification the characteristic values of all permanent actions from one source are multiplied by gGsup if the total resulting action effect is unfavourable, and by gGinf if favourable [see also ENV 1991-1, 9.4.2(3)(a)].

e Unless otherwise specified, the factors apply to the appropriate characteristic values defined in ENV 1991-2.1 (especially for the weight of road pavement).

f In cases in which the limit state is sensitive to variations in space of permanent actions, the upper and lower characteristic values of these actions should be taken in accordance with ENV 1991-3:1995, 4.2(3)P.

g Unless otherwise specified. For prestress by tendons, this factor applies to the appropriate characteristic values defined in the relevant design Eurocode. Where prestress is induced by deformations imposed on the structure, the factors on G and the imposed deformations should be as defined in the relevant design Eurocode.

h Applicable only where settlements are to be assessed as the best estimate (see the design Eurocodes).

i The components of traffic actions are introduced in combinations as one action, by the relevant group of loads gri, with the favourable components of these groups neglected.

) See Introduction.

The partial factors on actions in the serviceability limit state for highway bridges given in Table 4.5.2 shall replace ENV 1991-3:1995, C.3.3.

Table 4.5.2 — Partial factors on actions in the serviceability limit state for highway bridges

Action

Symbol

Situationa

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