Principles of remote sensing

The interpretation of aerial photography has for many years proved to be a valuable source of data for civil engineers. Until the early 1960s civilian 'remote sensing' was concerned primarily with the interpretation of such imagery. Since then, however, developments in orbiting satellites, sensor technology and computing have led to the creation of a discipline which now impinges on many areas in science and engineering. Although still in an embryonic state, particularly in the field of image...

Appendix Ground improvement

There are numerous cases in which the properties of naturally occurring soil or fill material can be improved or changed to help solve engineering problems arising either in temporary or permanent works. The methods of ground improvement cover a wide range of techniques - often referred to as geotechnical processes - and include compaction, moisture control, stabiliza tion, grouting and reinforcement. Reference should also be made to the use of geotextiles for reinforcement, separation and...

Appendix Pile capacities

Piles are used to transfer foundation loads to a deeper stratum when the surface soils are too weak or too compressible to carry the load without excessive settlement. Details of pile types and their design and use are given in Chapter 17. The reader's attention is drawn to the references in Chapter 17 for further information, particularly to BS 8004, Tomlinson61-62 and to series of CIRIA PSA piling guides. In this appendix, methods are given for estimating the carrying capacity of piles in...

Basic geology

Rock is strictly defined in geology as any natural solid portion of the Earth's crust which has recognizable appearance and composition. Some rocks are not necessarily hard, and in discussion a geologist may call peat or clay a rock as he would granite or limestone. There are three major classes of rocks (1) Sedimentary rocks formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's crust, e.g. sandstone, clay. (2) Igneous rocks formed from molten rock magma solidifying either at the Earth's surface...

Computers in surveying

Computers have, throughout their development, been extremely important in the fields of surveying and mapping. Initially, their use was almost exclusively restricted to the 'number crunching' requirements of large organizations carrying out geodetic computations or the adjustment of major control frameworks. Operations of this type were carried out on large mainframe computers in batch mode. Whilst slow and cumbersome to operate by modern computing standards, these early computers offered...

Contributors

Peter Ackers, MSc(Eng), CEng, FICE, MIWEM, MASCE Hydraulics consultant The late J Allen, DSc, LLD, FICE, FRSE Emeritus Professor, University of Aberdeen Manager, Underwater Engineering Group, London SCC Bate, CBE, BSc(Eng), PhD, CEng, FICE, FIStructE Formerly at the Building Research Establishment, and later consultant to Harry Stanger Ltd Keith M Brook, BSc, CEng, FICE, FIHT Wimpey Laboratories Ltd Staff of Central Electricity Generating Board Generation Development and Construction Division...

Dsvp deydPf y j g y de

From Figure 1.32, < J r dx j 2 fix) dx 1.5.5.2 Polar coordinates From Figure 1.33, dA p2dd Therefore A p2d9 J (0) 2< (Note. For curve cutting x axis, equate fix) to zero, find values of x for v 0 and integrate between these values for the area cut off by the x axis.) When the area lies above and below the x axis integrate the positive and negative areas separately and add algebraically. Where the area does not extend to the x axis in the case of cartesian coordinates, or to the origin in...

Info

Where R, is the initial rebound number at a point and R, is the rebound number after 20 tests on the same point Also for the Schmidt hammer when used on rock exposures of jointed weathered rock 32 where R, is the average rebound number from intact areas of the rock exposure free of discontinuities, and RF is the mean value of the rebound number from randomly located tests on an exposure of fractured rock (such as a tunnel face). To assess the tenacity of rock against the effort of rock cutters...

Conic Sections Ellipse Tangent Subnormal Normal Length Property

Figure 1.36 Properties of a conic section Referring to Figure 1.37, F F2 and the foci D,D,, D2D2 the directrices. FVV, Fyv, FVV, F F OFl OF2 e S,V, S,V, S,V, MS, MS, OV, OV2 V,V Let OV, the semi-major axis a and OE the semi-minor axis b, then OF, OF, ae and OS, OS, - also F,P a e.x F2P + i Y F,P+ F,P 2a F,E cOS, a (OE)2 b2 (F,E)2- (OF,)2 a2(I - e2), Hence, as OM x and PM y we have the following. Figure 1.36 Properties of a conic section Figure 1.37 Ellipse in cartesian coordinates Figure 1.37...

Introduction

Geological Joints

10.1 The scope of rock mechanics and rock engineering Rock mechanics is a term for science and engineering applied to rock masses. As such, the term has relevance in numerous fields such as the recovery of hydrocarbons in rock reservoirs, development of geothermal energy resources, studies of the Earth's crust, seismicity studies, as well as mining and civil engineering. The area of activity restricted to construction works which require or essentially comprise excavation into the surface of,...

Lwl

Passive earth pressure (divided by factor of safety) Passive earth pressure (divided by factor of safety) Figure 9.21 Dimensions and forces in anchored bulkhead calculation. Earth pressure diagrams illustrated are for homogeneous cohesionless soil. No pressures from surcharge loads have been shown 9.4.6.1 Forces acting on faces of bulkhead The active and passive pressures are first calculated. The active pressure calculations must allow for the maximum possible unbalanced water pressure and for...

O

Super 120 90 Zeiss (Ober.) RMK A Normal 60 300 Zeiss (Ober.) RMK A Figure 7.8 Variation in ground coverage of normal, wide and superwide angle cameras Figure 7.8 Variation in ground coverage of normal, wide and superwide angle cameras angle (SWA) lens is its greater ground coverage for a given flying height. This is particularly important since it not only reduces the number of photographs required to cover an area, but also reduces the number of control points which are required for...

Obm

The reduced level of a point is defined as its height above some datum. In the UK, the fundamental datum established by the Ordnance Survey is mean sea-level at Newlyn, Cornwall, known as Ordnance Datum. A further series of points of known height have been established throughout the UK and these are known as Ordnance bench-marks (OBM). Figure 6.38 Trigonometrical heighting Earth curvature Figure 6.38 Trigonometrical heighting Earth curvature '1 2 2 1 Figure 6.37 Quantity determination using a...

Plastics and rubbers Terminology

Standard definitions of terms relating to plastics (ASTM D883) includes the following. Polymer A substance consisting of molecules characterized by the repetition (neglecting ends, branch junctions and other minor irregularities) of one or more types of monomelic units. Plastic(s) A material that contains as an essential ingredient one or more organic polymeric substances of large molecular weight, is solid in its finished state and, at some stage in its manufacture or processing into finished...

Principles of photogrammetry

Photogrammetry Flow Chart

Since measurements may be taken from both air and ground images (normally photographs) two separate branches of the discipline are generally recognized aerial and close range (or terrestrial) photogrammetry. Aerial photogrammetry is a well-established technique in civil engineering for the production of topographic maps. Aerial photographs produced for such purposes can be obtained either with the optical axis of the camera pointing, nominally, vertically downwards so producing vertical aerial...

Problems Associated With Bored Piles Ciria

W. (1954) 'The pore pressure coefficients A and B Geotechnique, 4, 143. 2 Bishop, A. W. and Henkel, D. J. (1957) The measurement of soil properties in the triaxial test. Edward Arnold, London. 3 Taylor, D. W. (1948) Fundamentals of soil mechanics. Wiley, New York. 4 Terzaghi, K. and Peck, R. B. (1967) Soil mechanics in engineering practice. Wiley, New York. 5 Loudon, A. G. (1952) 'The computation of permeability from simple soil tests', Geotechnique, 3, 165. 6 Gibson, R. E. and...

The stability of slopes

The analysis of slopes is important because of the dangers to both structures and life that can be caused by two types of problem (1) Where construction or excavation causes stress changes in the soil which lead to failure in previously stable ground (the so-called 'first-time slide'). (2) Where construction or excavation reactivates movement on a pre-existing shear surface in the soil, usually part of an ancient and pre-existing landslide. As with other areas of soil mechanics, an important...

The use of photogrammetry in civil engineering

The use of aerial survey is generally considered to be the standard method of producing a topographic map or plan at scales smaller than 1 500. For scales greater than 1 500, ground survey would almost invariably be used. The basic sequence of operations required for the production of a topographic map is shown by the flow diagram in Figure 7.17. The major air survey companies will have the equipment and manpower to carry out all the stages indicated but smaller concerns might, for example,...

Theory of Structures

3.1.2 Force-displacement relationships 3.1.3 Static and kinetic determinacy 3.2 Statically determinate truss analysis 3.2.3 Method of tension coefficients 3.3.2 Evaluation of flexibility coefficients 3.3.3 Application to beam and rigid frame analysis 3.3.4 Application to truss analysis 3.3.5 Comments on the flexibility method 3.4.3 Assembly of structure stiffness matrix 3.4.4 Stiffness transformations 3.4.5 Some aspects of computerization of the stiffness method

Flow Chart For Slope Stability In

Schmidt Hammer Chart

Figure 10.13 An illustration of the size-dependence of shear stress-deformation behaviour for nonplanar joints. (After Bandis, Lumsden and Barton (1981) 'Experimental studies of scale effects on the shear behaviour of rock joints'. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci., 18) The analysis of a rock structure should not start without first preparing a complete statement of the factors involved. These usually include the geometry and intended purpose of the structure together with the main elements of the...

Seepage and flow nets

Flow Lines And Equipotential Lines

A flow net is a graphical representation of the pattern of the seepage or flow of water through a permeable soil. It is possible, by means of a flow net, to calculate the hydrostatic uplift on a structure such as a dam or barrage, the amount of seepage y Sheet pile wall A Side b F idation pit y Sheet pile wall A Side b F idation pit bj ' h h h As J1 ' gt Rolled fill dam of fine, clean sand Water surface - S T C' Graded filter Flow Equipotential lines i i i ' ' j i i Figure 9.31 Examples of flow...

Standards and codes of practice referred to in Chapter

BS 12 1978 Specification for ordinary and rapid-hardening Portland cement. BS 146 1973 Part 2 Specification for Portland blast-furnace cement. BS 812 1984 Part 101 Guide to sampling and testing aggregates. BS 877 1973 1977 Part 2 Specification for foamed or expanded blast-furnace slag lightweight aggregate for concrete. BS 882 1983 Specification for aggregates from natural sources for concrete. BS 915 1972 1983 Part 2 Specification for high alumina cement. BS 1014 1975 1986 Specification for...