Contents

Preface, vii In Memory, ix About the Author, x Foreword, xi

Chapter 1. An Overview of Water and Wastewater Treatment, 1 Introduction, 1

What We Mean by Water Purification, 4

The Clean Water Act, 26

Introducing the Physical Treatment Methods, 33

Introducing Chemical Treatment, 37

Energy Intensive Treatment Technologies, 40

Water Treatment in General, 42

Some General Comments, 56

List of Abbreviations Used in this Chapter, 57

Recommended Resources for the Reader, 58

Questions for Thinking and Discussing, 60

Chapter 2. What Filtration Is All About, 62 Introduction, 62

Terminology and Governing Equations, 63 Filtration Dynamics, 72 Wastewater Treatment Applications, 78 Key Words, 81 Nomenclature, 86

Recommended Resources for the Reader, 87 Questions for Thinking and Discussing, 89

Chapter 3. Chemical Additives that Enhance Filtration, 91 Introduction, 91

Aluminum Based Chemical Additive Compounds, 91

Iron-Based Compounds, 97

Lime, 101

Soda Ash, 104

Liquid Caustic Soda, 105

Filter Aids, 106

Recommended Resources for the Reader, 120 Questions for Thinking and Discussing, 122

Chapter 4. Selecting the Right Filter Media, 123 Introduction, 123

Types of Filter Media to Choose From, 123 Rigid Filter Media, 132

General Properties of Loose and Granular Media, 142 Filter Media Selection Criteria, 148 Recommended Resources for the Reader, 152 Questions for Thinking and Discussing, 155

Chapter 5. What Pressure- and Cake-Filtration Are All About, 157 Introduction, 157

Constant Pressure Differential Filtration, 158 Constant-Rate Filtration, 168 Variable-Rate and -Pressure Filtration, 170 Constant-Pressure and -Rate Filtration, 172 Filter-Medium Filtration Formulas, 173 Cake Filtration Equipment, 184 Nomenclature, 213

Recommended Resources for the Reader, 214 Questions for Thinking and Discussing, 217

Chapter 6. Cartridge and Other Filters Worth Mentioning, 224

Introduction, 224

Cartridge Filters, 224

The Tilting Pan Filter, 228

The Table Filter, 231

Questions for Thinking and Discussing, 233

Chapter 7. What Sand Filtration is All About, 235 Introduction, 235

Water Treatment Plant Operations, 236

Granular Media Filtration, 243

Let's Take a Closer Look at Sand Filters, 247

Slow Sand Filtration, 256

Rapid Sand Filtration, 257

Chemical Mixing and Solids Contact Processes, 260

Recommended Resources for the Reader, 265

Questions for Thinking and Discussing, 266

Chapter 8. Sedimentation, Clarification, Flotation, and Coalescence, 268 Introduction, 268

Let's Look at How a Single Particle Behaves in a Suspension, 269

Gravity Sedimentation, 275

The Sedimentation Process in Greater Detail, 282

A Closer Look at Mechanical Clarification Process and the Chemistry of Clarification, 305

Rectangular Sedimentation Tanks, 315 Air Flotation Systems, 317 Separation Using Coalescers, 323 Nomenclature, 326

Recommended Resources for the Reader, 328 Questions for Thinking and Discussing, 331

Chapter 9. Membrane Separation Technologies, 335 Introduction, 335

An Overview of Membrane Processes, 336 What Electrodialysis Is, 339 What Ultrafiltration Is, 344 What Microfiltration and Nanofiltration Are, 354 What Reverse Osmosis Is, 360 Recommended Resources for the Reader, 367 Questions for Thinking and Discussing, 370

Chapter 10. Ion Exchange and Carbon Adsorption, 372 Introduction, 372

Theory and Practice of Ion Exchange, 374 Carbon Adsorption in Water Treatment, 404 Some Final Comments on Both Technologies, 432 Recommended Resources for the Reader, 440 Questions for Thinking and Discussing, 444

Chapter 11. Water Sterilization Technologies, 446 Introduction, 446

What Waterborne Diseases Are, 446 Treatment Options Available to Us, 450 Ozonation, 454 Ultraviolet Radiation, 455

Electron Beam, 455

Biology of Aquatic Systems, 456

Disinfection by Chlorination, 463

Disinfection with Interhalogens and Halogen Mixtures, 476

Sterilization Using Ozone, 482

Chapter 12. Treating the Sludge, 496 Introduction, 496 What Sludge Is, 497

What Stabilization and Conditioning Mean, 501 Sludge Dewatering Operations, 520 Volume Reduction, 550

What Finally Happens to Sludge after Volume Reduction, 565 Final Comments and Evaluating Economics, 582 Recommended Resources for the Reader, 592 Questions for Thinking and Discussing, 594

Glossary, 601

Index, 631

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