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Ecology:The study of all aspects of how organisms interact with each other and/or their environment.

Ecosystem: Groupings of various organisms interacting with each other and their environment.

E-coli: Escherichia coli - one of the non-pathogenic coliform organisms used to indicate the presence of pathogenic bacteria in water.

Effective area: The total area of the porous medium exposed to flow in a filter element.

Efficiency: The ability, expressed as a percent, of a filter to remove specified artificial contaminant at a given contaminant concentration under specified test conditions.

Effluent: Wastewater or other liquid - raw (untreated), partially or completely treated - flowing from a reservoir, basin, treatment process, or treatment plant. E-Field (Electric field): The dominant component of a high impedance electromagnetic field produced by a near field source such as a short diapole, or the electric component of a far field plane wave. Expressed in V/m.. EGL: Energy grade line - a line that represents the elevation of energy head in feet of water flowing in a pipe, conduit, or channel.

Electrolytic process: A process that causes the decomposition of a chemical

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI): Electromagnetic energy that causes interference in the operation of electronic equipment. Can be conducted, coupled

Electromagnetic Capability (EMC): The capability of electronic equipment of systems to be operated in the intended operational electromagnetic environment at

Emulsion: A liquid mixture of two or more liquid substances not normally dissolved in one another, one liquid held in suspension in the other.

Endogenous respiration: A reduced level of respiration (breathing) in which organisms break down compounds within their own cells to produce the oxygen

Endotoxin: A toxin produced by bacteria. The toxin is present in the environment

Enteric: Of intestinal origin, especially applied to wastes or bacteria. Enzyme: Organic substances (proteins) produced by living organisms and act as

Environmental resistance: All biotic and abiotic factors combining to limit

Equalizing basin: A holding basin in which variations in flow and composition of liquid are averaged. Such basins are used to provide a flow of reasonably uniform volume and composition to a treatment unit. Also called a balancing reservoir. Estuaries: Bodies of water which are located at the lower end of a river and are

Eurythermal: Bodies of water which are located at the lower end of a river and are Extractables: Substances that can be leached from a filter during the filtration

Facultative anaerobe: A bacterium capable of growing under aerobic conditions or anaerobic conditions in the presence of an inorganic ion ie. S04, N03.

Facultative pond: The most common type of pond in current use. The upper portion (supernatant) is aerobic, while the bottom layer is anaerobic. Algae supply

Faraday cage: A spherical cage made of conductive material. Static fields and discharges do not pass through it. Electromagnetic energy passing through the skin

Feed: The material entering a filter processing unit for treatment.

Fermentation: A type of heterotrophic metabolism in which an organic compound rather than oxygen is the terminal electron (or hydrogen) acceptor. Less energy is generated from this incomplete form of glucose oxidation than is generated by respiration, but the process supports anaerobic growth.

Filamentous organisms: Organisms that grow in a thread or filamentous form. Common types are Thiothrix, Actinomycetes, and Cyanobacteria (aka blue-green algae). This is a common cause of sludge bulking in the activated sludge process. Variously known as "pond scum", "blue-green algae", or "moss", when it appears in a pond/lake, and confused with algae because it looks a lot like algae. Cyanobacteria forms a symbiotic relationship with some varieties of algae, making the combination very difficult to combat in lakes and ponds. Filamentous organisms and Actinomycetes will naturally stick to solid surfaces. Common types of Cyanobacteria are: Oscillatoria, Anabaena, and Synechococcus. Other filament formers include: Spirogyra, Cladophora, Rhizoclonium, Mougeotia, Zygnemaand Hydrodictyon. Nocardia is another filament former, which causes foaming and interferes with flocculation in a waste treatment plant.

Filter aid: A chemical (usually a polymer) added to water to help remove fine

Filter life: Measure of the duration of a filter's useful service. This is based on the amount of standard contaminant required to cause differential pressure to increase to an unacceptable level-typically 2-4 times the initial differential pressure, a 5080% drop in initial flow, or a downstream measure of unacceptable particulate. Filter media: A porous material for separating suspended particulate matter from

Filter medium: The permeable portion of a filtration system that provides the liquid-solid separation, such as screens, papers, non-wovens, granular beds and

Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid by passing it

Floating matter: Matter which passes through a 2000 micron sieve and separates

Floe: Clumps of bacteria and particulate impurities or coagulants that have come together and formed a cluster. Found in aeration tanks and secondary clarifiers. Flocculation: The process of forming floe particles when a chemical coagulant or flocculent such as alum or ferric chloride is added to the wastewater.

Flow rate: Measure of the amount of fluid passing through the filter. This is always a variable of filter area, porosity, contamination and differential pressure.

F: Food - represents BOD in the F/M ratio. Expressed in pounds.

FOG: Fats, Oils and Greases. A measure of the non-petroleum based fats in waste

F/M: A ratio of the amount of food to the amount of organisms. Used to control

Flow equalization system: A device or tank designed to hold back or store a portion of peak flows for release during low-flow periods.

Food chain: Very simple pathway of nutrient flow. Ex. Carnivore > herbivore >

Frazier test: Measures the amount of air transmitted through a filter under selected differential pressures. Historically used for textile products.

Frequency: Number of complete cycles of current per second, expressed in Hertz

Gasification: The conversion of soluble and suspended materials into gas during anaerobic decomposition. In clarifiers the resulting gas bubbles can become attached to the settled sludge and cause large clumps of sludge to rise and float on the water surface. In anaerobic sludge digesters, this gas is collected for fuel or

Generation time: The time required for a given population to double in size. This time can be as short as 20 minutes or as long as a week. Glyoxylate cycle: A modification of the Krebs cycle, which occurs in some bacteria. Acetyl coenzyme A is generated directly from oxidation of fatty acids or

GMPs: Good Manufacturing Practices. Food and Drug Administration regulations governing the manufacture of drugs and medical devices (Ref. Code of Federal

Gram positive: Bacterial cells which retain the crystal violet stain during a staining procedure. Most strains of bacilli are gram positive.

Gram negative: Bacteria cells which lose the crystal violet during the decolorizing step and are then colored by the counterstain. Pseudomonas and Thiobacillus are

Grit: The heavy material present in wastewater, such as sand coffee grounds,

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