a) up to 10 ppm iron removed by manganese greensand filter if pH is 6.7 or higher; or

b) Manganese-treated pumicite catalyst filter if pH is 6.8 or higher and oxygen is 15% of total iron content

c) Downflow water softened with good backwash, up to 10 ppm, use calcite filter followed be downflow water softener

Black Staining

a) Manganese greensand or manganese zeolite-type catalyst-filter to limit of 6 ppm or 15 ppm, respectively (combined Fe and Mn), with pH not lower than 6.7 value

b) Process used for iron removal usually will handle manganese

c) Manganese punicite* medium catalyst-filter with ultra-filtration-tvpe membrane element

Objective of Treatment

Method or Technology

Project Earth Conservation

Project Earth Conservation

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