Pulp mill residue
Of less significance than the surface area is the chemical nature of the carbon's surface. This chemical nature or polarity varies with the carbon type and can influence attractive forces between molecules. Alkaline surfaces are characteristic of carbons of vegetable origins and this type of surface polarity affects adsorption of dyes, colors, and unsaturated organic compounds. Silica gel, an adsorptive media that is not a carbon compound, has a polar surface which also exhibits an adsorptive preference for unsaturated organic com- pounds as opposed to saturated compounds. However, for the most part, activated carbon surfaces are nonpolar, making the adsorption of inorganic electrolytes difficult and the adsorption of organics easily effected.
Pores of the activated carbon exist throughout the particle in a manner illustrated in Figure 2. The pore structure of activated carbon affects the large surface-to-size ratio. The macropores do not add appreciably to the surface area of the carbon but provide a passageway to the particle interior and the micropores. The micropores are developed primarily during carbon activation and result in the large surface areas for adsorption to occur.
Macropores are those pores greater than 1,000 A; micropores range between 10-1,000 Â. Pore structure, like surface area, is a major factor in the adsorption process. Pore-size distribution determines the size distribution of molecules that can enter the carbon particle to be adsorbed. Large molecules can block off micropores, rendering useless their available surface areas. However, because of irregular shapes and constant molecule movement, the smaller molecules usually can penetrate to the smaller capillaries. Since adsorption is possible only in those pores that can be entered by molecules, the carbon adsorption process is dependent on the physical characteristics of the activated carbon and the molecular size of the adsórbate. Each application for carbon treatment must be cognizant of the characteristics of the contaminant to be removed and designed with the proper carbon type in order to attain optimum results. Basically, there are two forms of activated carbon: powdered and granular. The former are particles that are less than U.S. Sieve Series No. 50, while the latter are larger. The adsorption rate is influenced by carbon particle size, but not the adsorptive capacity which is related to the total surface area. By reducing the particle size, the surface area of a given weight is not affected. Particle size contributes mainly to a system's hydraulics, filterability, and handling characteristics.
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