treatment plant sometimes resist settling and as a result, their concentrations in the treatment system gradually build up. The centrate from raw sludge dewatering can also cause odor problems when recycled. Flocculents can be used to increase solids captures, often to any degree desired, as well as to materially increase the capacity (solids loading) of the centrifuges. However, the use of chemicals nullifies the major advantage claimed for centrifuges — moderate operating costs. As noted, three basic types of centrifuges are disc-nozzle, basket, and solid bowl. The latter two types have been used extensively for both dewatering and thickening. The disk-nozzle centrifuge is seldom used for dewatering sludge, but is used more for sludge thickening in the industrial sector. Because the solid bowl design has undergone major improvements throughout the history of its use, this method is used more than any other to dewater sludge. Because of recent improvements in solid bowl centrifuge design, solid concentrations can reach 35%. The solid bowl conveyor centrifuge operates with a continuous feed and discharge rates. It has a solid-walled imperforated bowl, with a horizontal axis of rotation. These centriffiges are enclosed, so they have a limited odor potential compared with other dewatering methods. The laydown area, access area, and centrifuge required space for a large machine (200 m to 700 gpm of sludge feed) is approximately 400 square feet. Compared to other mechanical dewatering machines, this space is significantly smaller. An example of a continuous horizontal solid-bowl centrifuge is illustrated in Figure 11. It consists of a cylindrical rotor with a truncated cone-shaped end and an internal screw conveyor rotating together. The screw conveyor often rotates at a rate of 1 or 2 rpm below the rotor's rate of rotation. The suspension enters the bowl axially through the feed tube to a feed accelerated zone, then passes through a feed port in the conveyor hub into the pond. The suspension is subjected to centrifugal force and thrown against the bowl wall where the solids are separated. The clarified suspension moves toward the broad part of the bowl to be discharged through a port. The solid particles being scraped by the screw conveyor are carried in the opposite direction (to the small end of the bowl) across discharge ports through which they are ejected continuously by centrifugal force. As in any sedimentation centrifuge, the separation takes place in two stages: settling (Figure 11, in the right part of the bowl), and thickening or pressing out of the sediment (left-hand side of the bowl).

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