200 mesh - 10 ¿im

Herbicides and pesticides

100-700 mesh


25 - 30 ¡im


Filtration Range


Filtration Range

Hydrochloric acid

100 mesh to 510 fim

Residual oil

25 - 50 fim

Mineral oil


Sea water

5 - 10 pan

Nitric acid

40 mesh - 10 /tm

Vacuum gas oil

25 - 75 n m

Phosphoric acid

100 mesh - 10 pan

Steam injection

5-10 fim

Sodium hydroxide

1-10 /an

Calcium carbonate

30 - 100 mesh

Sodium hypochlorite

1-10 /an


60 - 400 mesh

Sodium sulfate

5-10 fim

Fresh water

30 - 200 mesh

Sulfuric acid

250 mesh - 3 ^m


40 - 100 mesh

Synthetic oils

25 30 fim

River water

20 - 400 mesh

Other designs are simpler, experience lower pressure drop and have fewer maintenance problems. In an upflow cartridge filter, the unfiltered liquid enters the inlet (bottom) port. It flows upward, around and through the filter media, which is a stainless steel or fabric screen reinforced by a perforated, stainless steel backing. Filtered liquid discharges through the outlet (top port). Because of the outside-to-inside flow path, solids deposit onto the outside of the element so that screens are easy to clean. This external gasketing design prevents solids from bypassing the filter and contaminating the process downstream. There are no "o"-ring seals that can crack, channeling media that can fail or cartridges that can collapse or allow bypassing. As with any filter, careful media selection is critical. Media that are too coarse, for example, will not provide the needed protection. However, specifying finer media than necessary can add substantially to both equipment maintenance and operating costs. Factors to be considered in media selection include solids content, type of contaminant, particle size and shape, amount of contaminant to be removed, viscosity, corrosiveness, abrasiveness, adhesive qualities of the suspended solids, liquid temperature and the required flowrate. Typical filter media are wire mesh (typically 10 mesh to 700 mesh), fabric (30 mesh to 1 fim), slotted screens (10 mesh to 25 fim) and perforated stainless steel screens (10 mesh to 30 mesh). Table 2 provides some typical particle retention sizes for different filter media. Single filtration units can be piped directly into systems that require batch to semi-continuous services. Using quick-connector couplings, the media can be removed from the filter housing, inspected and cleaned in a matter of minutes. Filtering elements are also interchangeable. This means that while one unit is being cleaned, the other can be in service. Multiple filter units in a single housing are also quite common. These consist of two or more single filter units valved in parallel to a common header. The distinguishing feature of this type of configuration is the ability to sequentially backwash each unit in place while the others remain onstream. Hence, these systems serve as continuous operations. These units can be automated fully to eliminate manual backwashing. Backwashing can be controlled by changes in differential pressure between the inlet and outlet headers. One possible arrangement consists of a controller and solenoid valves that supply air signals to pneumatic valve actuators on each individual filter unit. As solids collect on the filter elements, flow resistance increases. This increases the pressure differential across the elements and, thus, between the inlet and outlet headers on the system. When the pressure drop reaches a preset level, an adjustable differential pressure switch relays information through a programmer to a set of solenoid valves, which, in turn, send an air signal to the pneumatic valve actuator. This rotates the necessary valve(s) to backwash the first filter element. When the first element is cleaned and back onstream, each successive filter element is backwashed in sequence until they are all cleaned. The programmer is then reset automatically until the rising differential pressure again initiates the backwashing cycle.

Table 2. Typica

Filter Retentions.

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