Nonconventional Treatment Methods

Electromagnetic Waves (EM) - Electromagnetic radiation is the propagation of energy through space by means of electric and magnetic fields that vary in time. Electromagnetic radiation may be specified in terms of frequency, vacuum wavelength, or photon energy. For water purification, EM waves up to the low end of the UV band will result in heating the water. (This includes infrared as well as most lasers.) In the visible range, some photochemical reactions such as dissociation and increased ionization may take place. At the higher frequencies, it will be necessary to have thin layers of water because the radiation will be absorbed in a relatively short distance. It should be noted that the conductivity and dielectric constant of materials are, in general, frequency dependent. In case of the dielectric constant, it decreases as 1/wavelength. Hence, the electromagnetic absorption will vary with the frequency of the applied field. There may be some anomalies in the absorption spectra in the vicinity of frequencies that could excite molecules. At those frequencies, the absorption could be unusually large. Ultraviolet radiation in the region between 0.2 ¡i to 0.3 n has germicidal properties. The peak germicidal wavelength is around 0.26 ¡i. This short UV is attenuated in air and, hence, the source must be very near the medium to be treated. The medium must be very thin as the UV will be attenuated in the medium as well. X-rays and gamma rays are high-energy photons and will tend to ionize most anything with which they collide. They could generate UV in air. At higher energies it is possible for the gamma rays to induce nuclear reactions by stripping protons or neutrons from nuclei. This could result in the production of isotopes and/or the production of new atoms.

Sound - A sound wave is an alteration in pressure, stress, particle displacement, particle velocity, or a combination of these that is propagated in an elastic medium. Sound waves, therefore, require a medium for transmission; that is, they may not be transmitted in a vacuum. The sound spectrum covers all possible frequencies. The average human ear responds to frequencies between 16 Hz and 16 kHz. Frequencies above 20 kHz are called ultrasonic frequencies. Sound waves in the 50-200 kHz range are used for cleaning and degreasing. In water purification applications, ultrasonic waves have been used to effect disintegration by cavitation and mixing of organic materials. The waves themselves have no germicidal effect but, when used with other treatment methods, can provide the necessary mixing and agitation for effective purification.

Electron Beams - The electron is the lightest stable elementary particle of matter known and carries a unit of negative charge. It is a constituent of all matter and can be found free in space. Under normal conditions, each chemical element has a nucleus consisting of a number of neutrons and protons, the latter equal in number to the atomic number of the element. Electrons are located in various orbits around the nucleus. The number of electrons is equal to the number of protons, and the atom is electrically neutral when viewed from a distance. The number of electrons that can occupy each orbit is governed by quantum mechanical selection rules. The binding energy between an electron and its nucleus varies with the orbit number, and in general the electrons with the shortest orbit are the most tightly bound. An electron can be made to jump from one orbit into another by giving it a quantum of energy. This energy quantum is

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