Some Useful Formulas When Dealing With Chemical Additives

To calculate the Lbs. of chemical per gal. of solution:

Strength of Chemical (as %) x Specific Gravity x Lbs of Water

To calculate mL per min. of water flow in a treatment plant:

(GPD of water x 3785)/1440

To calculate the make-up requirements in gallons for a rectangular tank: Length of tank (in ft) x Width x Depth x 7.47

To calculate the make-up requirements in gallons for a round tank or clarifier: 3.1417 x R2 x Depth (in ft) x 7.47 Where R is the tank radius in ft.

Fermentation Broth Pre-treatment - Flocculants can be used at several stages of the fermentation product purification process, e.g. cell-broth separation, cell debris flocculation and protein precipitation. Such processes are becoming increasingly more relevant with the commercialization of new products using biotechnology routes. The trend in flocculant pre-treatment of whole cells in complex fermentation media is to use low molecular weight flocculants. Herein low molecular weight flocculants lead to more compact centrifuge cakes. This is advantageous whether the fermentation product to be recovered is extra-cellular, intracellular or the cellular material itself.

If the fermentation product is extracellular, the benefits come from the minimisation of product entrainment into the cake. Alternatively, if the product is intracellular or the cellular material itself, a compact cake minimizes the contamination that would result from entrainment of the fermentation medium in the cake.

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