U

Unicellular: Single celled organism, such as bacteria.

Upset: An upset digester does not decompose organic matter properly. The digester is characterized by low gas production, high volatile acid/alkalinity relationship, and poor liquid-solids separation. A digester in an upset condition is sometimes called a "sour" or "stuck" digester.

Ultrasonic (processes): Process which utilizes specially designed tooling usually vibrating at 15-80 KHz. Processes are designed to cause localized heating of thermoplastic materials which, in turn, will provide some type of welded or fused joint. Benefits are elimination of fillers and minimized heat stress on surrounding materials.

628 WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES Upstream side: The feed side of the filter.

Uronic acid: Class of acidic compounds of the general formula HOOC(CHOH)nCHO that contain both carboxylic and aldehydic groups, are oxidation products of sugars, and occur in many polysaccharides; especially in the hemicelluloses.

Useful life: Determined when contamination causes an adverse flow rate, low efficiency or high differential pressure.

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