World War Ebooks Catalog
Over 100 years ago it had been demonstrated that ozone (03), the unstable triatomic allotrope of oxygen, could destroy molds and bacteria and by 1892 several experimental ozone plants were in operation in Europe. In the 1920s, however, as a result of wartime research, during World War I, chlorine became readily
The history of carbon adsoprtion in the pruification of water dates back to ancient times. Adsorption on porous carbons was described as early as 1550 B.C. in an ancicnt Egyptian papyrus and later by Hippocrates and Pliny the Elder, mainly for medicinal purposes. In the 18th century, carbons made from blood, wood and animals were used for the purification of liquids. All of these materials, which can be considered as precursors of activated carbons, were only available as powders. The typical technology of application was the so-called batch contact treatment, where a measured quantity of carbon and the liquid to be treated were mixed and, after a certain contact time, separated by filtration or sedimentation. At the beginning of the 19th century the decolourisation power of bone char was detected and used in the sugar industry in England. Bone char was available as a granular material which allowed the use of percolation technology, where the liquid to be treated was continuously...
Up to this point, fracture mechanics was still a relatively obscure and esoteric science. However, more than any other single factor, the large number of sudden and catastrophic fractures that occurred in ships during and following World War II gave the impetus for the development of fracture mechanics. Of approximately 5,000 welded ships constructed during the war, over 1,000 suffered structural damage, with 150 of these being seriously damaged, and 10 fractured into two parts. After the war, George Irwin, who was at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, made use of Griffith's idea, and thus set the foundations of fracture mechanics. He made three major contributions
This method causes water within a soil to drain away under the action of an electrical potential and can be very effective in fine grained soils, such as silts and clayey silts where well point systems (see Chapters 2 and 10) cannot be used because of the low permeability of the soil. The system was first used by the Germans in World War II during the construction of U-boat pens at Trondheim, in Norway, and its application has been described by Casagrande (1947).
Iodine's use as a water purification method emerged after World War 2, when the U.S. military was looking for a replacement for Halazone tablets. Iodine was found to be in many ways superior to chlorine for use in treating small batches of water. Iodine is less sensitive to the pH and organic content of water, and is effective in lower doses. Some individuals are allergic to iodine, and there is some question about long term use of iodine. The safety of long-term exposure to low levels of iodine was proven when inmates of three Florida prisons were given water disinfected with 0.5 to 1.0 ppm iodine for 15 years. No effects on the health or thyroid function of previously healthy inmates was observed. Of 101 infants born to prisoners drinking the water for 122- 270 days, none showed detectable thyroid enlargement. However, 4 individuals with preexisting cases of hyperthyroidism became more symptomatic, while consuming the water. Nevertheless, experts are reluctant to recommend iodine...
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